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Gen Winfield Scott

Led War party to Mexico City to conquer the city. Opponent was Hernan Cortez

Stephen Douglas

Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine

54-40 or fight

James Polk's slogan during election, showing the wanted boundaries for the oregon territory.

James Marshall

discovered gold in California while building a sawmill for John Sutter

Cyrus Field

laid first transatlantic cable

Robert Fulton


Election of 1856

Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty

Anaconda Plan

Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south

Senator Andrew Butler

A S.C. Senator that was against slavery. Comments were said to him by Charles Sumner.

Dred Scott Decision

Landmark court decision that ruled that slaves were property and antislavery laws were unconstitutional

Kansas Nebraska Act

1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to popular sovereignty

Wilmont Proviso

bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the war with mexico

James Buchanan

15th president of the US, known as one of the worst presidents in US history.


policy of extending a nation's boundaries

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederate States of America

Louis Daguerre


John Brown

Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)

Compromise of 1850

it abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia, admitted California as a free state and opened much of the Mexican Cession to popular sovereignty

Oregon Trail

pioneer trail that began in missouri and crossed the great plains into the oregon country

Fort Sumpter

confederate soilders opened fire on the fort. This beganed the civil war.(1861-1865)

Nicholas Trist

U.S. diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The Oregon Dispute

B/T U.S. and England, Both wanted stakes in the Oregon Territory

Zachary Taylor

General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande.

Stephen Watts Kearny

General that captured Santa Fe and continued to San Diego, securing CA

Mexican War

after Mexican refusal to sell California-New Mexico region, Polk sent troops and it ended w/ Treat of Guadalupe-Hidalgo

Election of 1844

Main debate over Texas. Whigs nominate Henry Clay and democrats nominate James Polk. Polk says he will annex Texas and Oregon to make both sides happy. Polk was elected

Know Nothings

the American Party; anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic

Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo

1848 ends the Mexican American War. For $15 Million the US acquired Texas territory north of the Rio Grande, New Mexico, and California. US territory increased by 1/3 as a result of the treaty.

Manifest Destiny

the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

Election of 1848

1. Zachary Taylor ***winner (whig) 2. Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party) 3. Lewis Cass (Democrat) 4. Zachary Taylor became president and he died so his vice president Millard Fillmore became president

John C. Fremont

an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.

"hard tack"

a hard biscuit eaten during the Civil War.

Army of the Potomac

It was the major Union army in the eastern front. It fought many battles and ultimately won the war.

Army of Northern Virginia

was the primary military force of the Confederate states

Robert E. Lee

General of the Confederates (South)

Battle of Bull Run

July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody

General George McClellan

Lincoln's first choice for commander of the Union forces/ he prepared the men well, but he would never attack/cautious.

Battle of Antietam

Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties

Emancipation Proclamation

issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free

Battle of Fredericksburg

an 1862 civil war battle in virginia; one of the union's worst defeats

Battle of Gettysburg

Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.

Fall of Vicksburg

Allowed the Union forces to control the mississippi river and gain contol of tennessee

General Ulysses S Grant

18 president and the toughest general ever in the union army. He was fearless and won many battles.

March to the sea

Sherman's march to Savannah which cut off confederate supplies received by the sea

William Tecumseh Sherman

Union General who destroyed South during "march to the sea" from Atlanta to Savannah.

General George Meade

Union general; surrounded and defeated Lee at Gettysburg

Cold Harbor

in June 1864, Grant's army lost 7,000 soldiers in a few minutes when they tried to take this Southern stronghold in Virginia.

Picketts Charge

a failed confederate attack during the Civil War led by general George Pickett at the Battle of Gettysburg.

Election of 1864

Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins


a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War

Appomattox Court House

famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant


white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest

"carpet bagger"

name given to many northerners who moved to the south after the civil war and supported the republicans

General O. O. Howard

Head of the Freedman's Bureau

ford Theater

site of Lincoln's assassination

John Wilkes Booth

was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.

Andrew Johnson

17th president of the United States, came to office after Lincoln's assassination and opposed Radical Republicans; he was impeached

"Radical Republicans"

Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war

13th Amendment

abolished slavery

14th Amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

15th Amendment

This amendment granted black men the right to vote.

Freedman's Bureau

federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, and medical care to freed slaves in the South

Impeachment of Johnson

1868 violated the Tenure of Office Act, but really was because of his stubborn defiance of Congress on Reconstruction. Fell one vote short

Tenure of Office Act

required the president to secure consent of the Senate before removing appointees once they had been approved

Edwin Stanton

Popular Secretary of War who is fired by Johnson and leads to Johnson's impeachment

Edmund Ross

The Republican senator from Kentucky who was the deciding member in the Impeachment of President Johnson.

Election of 1868

the Republicans nominated Ulysses S. Grant; beat Horatio Seymour (Democratic nominee)

"Waving the Bloody Shirt"

Practice during elections to accuse the opponent of being on the wrong side during war.

Grant Administration

Wasn't a good judge of Character


nickname for irish on railway construction gangs-Union Pacific.


workers from China on US railroads and gold rush-Central Pacific railroad.

Grant Peace Policy

move natives to reservations, killed all the buffalo

Election of 1876

Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised

Rutherford Hayes

19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history

Samuel Tilden

Democratic nominee for president in 1876, loses narrowly

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