Led War party to Mexico City to conquer the city. Opponent was Hernan Cortez
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
54-40 or fight
James Polk's slogan during election, showing the wanted boundaries for the oregon territory.
discovered gold in California while building a sawmill for John Sutter
laid first transatlantic cable
Election of 1856
Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
Senator Andrew Butler
A S.C. Senator that was against slavery. Comments were said to him by Charles Sumner.
Dred Scott Decision
Landmark court decision that ruled that slaves were property and antislavery laws were unconstitutional
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to popular sovereignty
bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the war with mexico
15th president of the US, known as one of the worst presidents in US history.
policy of extending a nation's boundaries
President of the Confederate States of America
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Compromise of 1850
it abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia, admitted California as a free state and opened much of the Mexican Cession to popular sovereignty
pioneer trail that began in missouri and crossed the great plains into the oregon country
confederate soilders opened fire on the fort. This beganed the civil war.(1861-1865)
U.S. diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Oregon Dispute
B/T U.S. and England, Both wanted stakes in the Oregon Territory
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande.
Stephen Watts Kearny
General that captured Santa Fe and continued to San Diego, securing CA
after Mexican refusal to sell California-New Mexico region, Polk sent troops and it ended w/ Treat of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Election of 1844
Main debate over Texas. Whigs nominate Henry Clay and democrats nominate James Polk. Polk says he will annex Texas and Oregon to make both sides happy. Polk was elected
the American Party; anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic
Treaty of Guadalupe Hildalgo
1848 ends the Mexican American War. For $15 Million the US acquired Texas territory north of the Rio Grande, New Mexico, and California. US territory increased by 1/3 as a result of the treaty.
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Election of 1848
1. Zachary Taylor ***winner (whig) 2. Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party) 3. Lewis Cass (Democrat) 4. Zachary Taylor became president and he died so his vice president Millard Fillmore became president
John C. Fremont
an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
a hard biscuit eaten during the Civil War.
Army of the Potomac
It was the major Union army in the eastern front. It fought many battles and ultimately won the war.
Army of Northern Virginia
was the primary military force of the Confederate states
Robert E. Lee
General of the Confederates (South)
Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody
General George McClellan
Lincoln's first choice for commander of the Union forces/ he prepared the men well, but he would never attack/cautious.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
Battle of Fredericksburg
an 1862 civil war battle in virginia; one of the union's worst defeats
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Fall of Vicksburg
Allowed the Union forces to control the mississippi river and gain contol of tennessee
General Ulysses S Grant
18 president and the toughest general ever in the union army. He was fearless and won many battles.
March to the sea
Sherman's march to Savannah which cut off confederate supplies received by the sea
William Tecumseh Sherman
Union General who destroyed South during "march to the sea" from Atlanta to Savannah.
General George Meade
Union general; surrounded and defeated Lee at Gettysburg
in June 1864, Grant's army lost 7,000 soldiers in a few minutes when they tried to take this Southern stronghold in Virginia.
a failed confederate attack during the Civil War led by general George Pickett at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Appomattox Court House
famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest
name given to many northerners who moved to the south after the civil war and supported the republicans
General O. O. Howard
Head of the Freedman's Bureau
site of Lincoln's assassination
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
17th president of the United States, came to office after Lincoln's assassination and opposed Radical Republicans; he was impeached
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
This amendment granted black men the right to vote.
federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, and medical care to freed slaves in the South
Impeachment of Johnson
1868 violated the Tenure of Office Act, but really was because of his stubborn defiance of Congress on Reconstruction. Fell one vote short
Tenure of Office Act
required the president to secure consent of the Senate before removing appointees once they had been approved
Popular Secretary of War who is fired by Johnson and leads to Johnson's impeachment
The Republican senator from Kentucky who was the deciding member in the Impeachment of President Johnson.
Election of 1868
the Republicans nominated Ulysses S. Grant; beat Horatio Seymour (Democratic nominee)
"Waving the Bloody Shirt"
Practice during elections to accuse the opponent of being on the wrong side during war.
Wasn't a good judge of Character
nickname for irish on railway construction gangs-Union Pacific.
workers from China on US railroads and gold rush-Central Pacific railroad.
Grant Peace Policy
move natives to reservations, killed all the buffalo
Election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Democratic nominee for president in 1876, loses narrowly