Intro to Pharmacology
Terms in this set (22)
What is pharmacology?
the study of medicine, is a subject devoted to proper drug treatment and health of the human body. It is an expansive topic utilizing concepts from human biology, pathophysiology, and chemistry.
What is pathophysiology?
The functional changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury. The study of such changes.
For health care providers, the fields of pharmacology and therapeutics are connected.
Therapeutics: is the science associated with the treatment of suffering and the prevention of disease.
Pharmacotherapeutics: is the useful application of drugs for the purpose of fighting disease. The study of pharmacology is important to health professionals from many different fields.
Agents may be classified as?
Traditional drugs, biologics, and natural alternatives.
Drugs are chemical agents used to treat disease by producing biological responses within the body.
Therapeutic drugs are classified as:
substances produced chemically or naturally.
Traditional drugs are?
chemically produced or synthesized in a laboratory.
(Routinely used by health care providers)
natural agents produced by the body itself, animal cells or microorganisms.
(include hormones and vaccines)
(Routinely used by health care providers)
Natural alternative therapies include?
herbs, natural (plant) extracts, vitamins, minerals, or dietary supplements.
What are the two major methods of dispensing drugs legally?
Prescription drugs (require a physician's order)
OTC drugs (do not require a physician's order)
What are the advantages to prescription drugs?
The advantages are numerous. Practitioners have an opportunity to examine their patients and determine a specific diagnosis. Practitioners can maximize therapy by ordering the proper drug for their patients' conditions and controlling the specific amount and frequency of the drug to be dispensed.
What are the advantages to OTC drugs?
Do not require a physician's order, therefore obtained more easily than prescription drugs. Patient doesn't have to make an appointment, which saves time and money. Disadvantage: without training, choosing the proper medication can be challenging. OTC drugs may react with foods, herbal products, and prescription or other OTC drugs. Patients may not be aware of medications impairing ability to function safely. Self-treatment is sometimes ineffective. Potential for injury is much greater if the disease is allowed to progress without proper treatment.
What is pharmaceutics?
The science of preparing and dispensing drugs and is a very important part of pharmacotherapy. Pharmaceutics is the science of pharmacy. It involves dispensing a drug to a patient after he or she has been examined by a licensed health care provider. Dispensing medications safely is a major challenge for health care providers and patients.
What is the purpose of drug regulations?
Created to protect the public from drug misuse or wrongful therapeutic claims.
Lists of drugs and drug recipes.
a medical reference summary indicating standards of drug purity and strength and directions for synthesis.
U.S. drug standards have become increasingly complex. What agency primarily regulates drug safety?
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Three branches of the FDA control policies regarding drug therapies:
**CDER (Center for Drug Evaluation and Research) control over whether prescription drugs and OTC drugs may be used for therapy.
**CBER (Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research) regulates use of biologics, including serums, vaccines, and products found in the bloodstream.
**CFSAN (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition) regulates use of herbal products and dietary supplements. However, herbal products and dietary supplements can be marketed without prior approval from the FDA.
What are the four stages of approval for therapeutic and biologic drugs?
Preclinical investigation, clinical investigation, submission of a new drug application (NDA) with review, and post-marketing studies. Clinical phase trials must be completed before drugs are approved for public use.
How are drugs in Canada regulated?
The Health Protection Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare enforces regulations concerned with the Canadian Food and Drugs Act. The Health Products and Food Branch of Health Canada regulates the proper used of therapeutic drugs by issuing a Notice of Compliance (NOC) and Drug Identification Number (DIN) before drugs are marketed. Drugs in Canada are regulated in a manner similar to that used in the U.S. Any drug that doesn't comply with standards established by recognized pharmacopoeias and formularies in the U.S., Europe, Great Britain, or France can't be labeled, packaged, sold, or advertised in Canada. There are 6 steps of approval for drugs marketed within Canada.
the intentional use of infectious biological agents, chemical substances, or radiation to cause widespread harm or illness.
What are the most worrisome threats pertaining to bio-terrorism?
**Acutely infectious diseases such as anthrax, smallpox, plague, and hemorrhagic viruses
**Incapacitating chemicals such as nerve gas, cyanide, and chlorinated agents
**Nuclear and radiation emergencies
How does bio-terrorism affect health care providers?
providers must be able to identify, isolate, and treat widespread disease caused by bio-terrorism.