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Professor Laura Hagel

cliff walls; apartments

The Native American dwellings at Mesa Verde, Colorado used __________ as part of the back support
for more than one hundred rectangular __________.


The prehistoric Stonehenge is one of the earliest examples of __________ construction, in which two
stones were set vertically and a third stone laid across them, creating an opening beneath.

dry masonry

The Incan fortress of Machu Picchu is considered to be __________ construction, as it was built without
any mortar

weight of the massive stone lintels

The interior of the Egyptian temple of Amen-Re at Karnak is cluttered by a forest of columns because of
the __________.

Pont du Gard; compressive strength

One of the best preserved ancient Roman aqueduct systems is the __________ near Nimes, France. The
__________ of the limestone blocks allowed for the weight of three tiers of arches.

groin vaults; bay

__________ are constructed by placing barrel vaults at right angles to cover a square space known as a


The Church of St. Étienne was one of the first cathedrals to use true ribbed vaulting, allowing a(n)
__________ to be pierced through the walls from which light could enter the nave of the church.


The Gothic, pointed arch church of Notre-Dame of Paris is bathed in light due to its ample __________.


Because it rests on a square base, the dome of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is supported by four
triangular surfaces known as __________.

balloon framing

Originally a derisive term, __________ uses mass produced, light, easily handled cuts of wood and
metal nails for the assembly of millions of homes and small buildings on site.

need for mass suburban housing for growing metropolitan areas

The 17,000 almost identical small homes built in post-World War II Levittown, New York, are a
reflection of the __________.

cast iron

Nineteenth-century industrialization led to the development of __________ as a building material, and it
was the first material to allow the erection of tall buildings with relatively slender walls.

"form follows function"

Louis Sullivan's rigid horizontal and vertical processions of façade elements that suggest the regularity
of the spaces within his Wainwright Building reinforce Sullivan's famous motto that __________.


The Eiffel Tower's magnificent iron trusses were __________.


The original ideal for reinforced concrete began in the 1860s with Jacques Monier, who proposed stretheining

cantilevered decks

In Frank Lloyd Wright's famous "Fallingwater," he made use of reinforced concrete to produce

the diverse disciplines that will be housed in the structure

The assertive clashing of shapes in Frank Gehry's high-tech Ray and Maria Stata Center at MIT
symbolizes __________.

woven carbon fiber

Peter Testa believes we "need to rethink how we assemble buildings" and has designed a high-rise tower
out of __________.

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