E, F, B, D, C, A. Ethical reasoning is the process of thinking through what one ought to do in an orderly and systematic manner to provide justification for actions based on principles. First, the nurse determines whether or not the issue involves an ethical dilemma and gathers information that is relevant to the case. Next, the nurse undertakes personal value clarification and identifies his or her own values regarding the issue. Third, the nurse verbalizes the problem in a simple sentence. Fourth, the nurse considers possible courses of action. In this case, the nurse may choose to seek the counsel of the agency's ethicist regarding the issue. Fifth, the nurse negotiates the outcome by developing a confidence in her or his own point of view with deep respect for the opinions of others. In this case, the nurse may negotiate with the family to determine a course of action that will allow the nurse to preserve integrity and yet allow the family to determine when the client should be informed of the tragic loss. Finally, the nurse evaluates the action. 4. In an emergency department, triage involves brief client assessment to classify clients according to their need for care and includes establishing priorities of care. The type of illness or injury, the severity of the problem, and the resources available govern the process. Clients with trauma, chest pain, severe respiratory distress or cardiac arrest, limb amputation, acute neurological deficits, and those who have sustained chemical splashes to the eyes are classified as emergent and are the number 1 priority. Clients with conditions such as a simple fracture, asthma without respiratory distress, fever, hypertension, abdominal pain, or a renal stone have urgent needs and are classified as number 2 priority. Clients with conditions such as a minor laceration, sprain, or cold symptoms are classified as nonurgent and are the number 3 priority.