Final Exam Review 2

The products of meiosis are
four genetically different, haploid cells.
A plant that produces white flowers is crossed to a plant that produces orange flowers. All the offspring produced pale orange flowers. What can you conclude?
This trait shows incomplete dominance.
Why do X-linked conditions appear more frequently in males than"in females?
male with a nonfunctioning allele on X does not have another allele of that gene.
If a cell contains 20 chromosomes, how many chromatids will be resent during prophase?
a diploid cell from an organism has 32 chromosomes, how many would be in a gamete that is the result of non-disjunction.
31 or 33
A trihybid cross would
follow three traits in a cross
A, B, and 0 blood type in humans is controlled by a single gene with three alleles: I to power of (A), I to power of (B) and i
I to the power of (A)i and I to the power of (B) i
What is being separated during anaphase of mitosis?
sister chromatids
Which molecule is made in the nucleolus but exits to function in the cytoplasm?
What is non-disjunction?
failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate
If a 2n cell with 6 chromosomes undergoes mitosis how many chromosomes will each daughter cell have?
The genotype Yy is an example of
a heterozygous genotype
In DNA, A, C, G and T stand for
The different types of bases on the nucelotides
In humans, "unattached" earlobes are dominant over "attached" earlobes. "Widows peak" hairline is dominant over
"non-widows peak" hairline. Use E and e for the earlobe phenotype alleles, and Wand w for the hairline phenotype alleles. Dimpled cheeks is dominant to undimpled cheeks. If there exists a 50% chance that a child will
have dimpled cheeks, the parental genotypes must be
C Dd and dd
What units are bonded together to make a strand of DNA?
What is one of the differences between cell division in plants and cell division in animal cells?
Plant cells separate by a growth of a cell wall and membrane in the middle of the cell
In a dihybrid cross, if heterozygotes are crossed, what fraction of the offspring are expected to have
both the dominant phenotypes?
In Mendel's pea plants, yellow seeds are dominant to green seeds. Purple flowers are dominant to white flowers. Use Y and y
for the seed color alleles and P and p for the flower color alleles. Flower color and seed color assort independently. If a YyPp plant is crossed to a Yypp plant, what is the probability that the resulting plant will have
the genotype Yypp?
A 1/4
What is the relationship between genes and chromosomes?
chromosome is a DNA molecule with many genes .
Which cell structure physically moves the cell's chromosomes?
the microtubule spindle
if a cell with 2 nuclei was discovered, which of the explanations below would be true?
Mitosis occurred without cytokinesis.
what is the function of DNA polymerase?
matching complementary bases on nucleotides during DNA replication
what cell cycle structure would be found in animal cells but not plant cells?
Contractile ring
A female who does not carry the color blindness allele has children with a male who is color blind.
What proportion of their children will be color blind?
In the F2 generation, the 3:1 ratio is really a disguised
A liver cell from a human male has
22 pairs of autosomes and two X chromosomes.
What is one of the main differences between somatic cells and gametes?
gametes will fuse to produce offspring.
X- linked conditions are caused by
genes on the X chromosome.
in cell division, when are mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes and other cytosolic cell components divided?
Mendel postulated that individuals have "elements in pairs " that determine a single phenotype. What are the paired elements?
2 alleles of a gene on homologous chromosomes
Which cell cycle stage is NOT part of interphase?
One strand of DNA is the template for the synthesis of another strand. What does this mean?
the template specifies the bases on the nucleotides of the strand being made.
why does ova production result in one egg and three polar bodies?
This allows the egg to receive most of the cytoplasm.
In PCR, what is the function of the heat step?
It separates the 2 strands of DNA.
When do sister chromatids separate during meiosis?
anaphase II
What is the term for an observable trait of an organism?
What are the results of DNA replication?
2 DNA molecules, each with one old and one new strand
how many different types of bases are used to encode all the genetic information in a molecule of DNA?
The plant Arabidopsis thalian has five pairs of chromosomes AA, BB, CC, DD and EE. If this plant is
self-fertilized, what chromosome complement would be found in a root cell of the offspring?
If a female who is a carrier for the hemophilia gene has a child with a male who does not have
hemophilia, which prediction is correct?
if of the sons and none of the daughters will have hemophilia.
How many chromosomes are in a human gamete?
What is the purpose of recombination (crossing over)?
create chromosomes that are a new combination of paternal and maternal material
If the sequence TCGTA was used as a template in DNA replication, what would the sequence of
In which stage of meiosis does recombination, or crossing-over occur?
prophase I
The two strands of a double helix of DNA are linked by what kinds of bonds?
hydrogen bonds between sugars and phosphates
In PCR, what is the function of the primers?
They indicate where DNA synthesis should start.
How many different types of gametes can be generated by an individual with genotype AaBB?
If a eukaryotic cell has 20 chromosomes and it undergoes meiosis, how many cells will result, and
how many chromosomes will they contain?·
4 cells, each with 10 chromosomes
A person who is heterozygous for the Huntington disease allele has offspring with someone who
does not have HD. What proportion of their children will have HD?
AA and Aa
People with Down Syndrome have
a diploid set of chromosomes, plus one extra of number 21.