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Arts and Humanities
2.1 Cognitive Perceptual, and Motor Foundations of Early Language and Speech
Terms in this set (35)
Formation of Aufditory Patterns
What is involved in early cognitive developement?
sensitive to sounds (startle)
A fetus at 8 weeks can what?
A fetus at 14 weeks can what?
hearing is functional
A fetus at 20 weeks can what?
A fetus at 26 weeks has what?
Have developed senses but have difficulty controlling their attention
At 2 months an infant exhibits selective attention
What are some aspects of cognitive development in neonates?
A repetitive stimulus elicits less of a response over time
** Allows an infant to attend to new stimuli without competition from less novel stimuli
What is habituation?
using sensory information and prior knowledge to make sense of incoming stimuli
What is perception?
Discriminate differences in incoming information
•Gain awareness of what is happening around us
•Within a few days newborns can:
•Recognize their mother's face
•Discriminate between different facial expressions
Newborns show an early preference for speech
•Capable of discriminating between different sound durations and loudness levels and different phonemes and consonants in short syllables
What are some aspects of perception of cognitive development in neonates?
Infants encode sound patterns of their native language, organizing them into types and sequences.
What is formation of auditory patterns?
3 months: More attentive to words
•5 months: Beginning to respond to their name
•8 months: Beginning to store sound patterns for words
What are some aspects of auditory patterns and cognitive developement?
Phonemes, phoneme combinations, and syllable structures typical of the native language and noticed by young children
What are phonotactic regularities?
The likelihood of phonemes appearing together and/or in certain locations in words
•"ng" not at the beginning of a word, but ok elsewhere
•"dn" not ok within a syllable, but ok across syllables ("kidney")
What are phonotactic proababilties?
Neonate appears to be "prewired" for communication
Development of Communication: Newborns
muscle movement and the sensory feedback that informs the brain of the extent of that movement
What is motor control?
Most movements are reflexive & not purposeful/planned
•Reflexive - Crying, fussing
•Vegetative - Swallowing, burping
Motor control in new borne involves what?
What is reflexive?
What is vegetative?
are controlled by the brainstem & pons (reflexive portions of our brain)
•Decrease with maturation
part of motor control in newborns
Non-crying sounds typically in response to smiling or talking by a caregiver
•Vowel-like sounds with brief consonantal elements
•Involve vibration of the vocal folds created by chance (accidental) movements not a lot of voluntary control of what sound(s) come out
•Tend to be individual sounds rather than sound sequences
What is Quasi-Resonant Nuclei (QRN)?
Vocal tract of a neonate
•Closer to nonhuman primates than human adult
•Large tongue (for size of mouth)
•Obligate nose breathers
•Increased nasalization of sounds -> Tongue is in close proximity to (or touching) the soft palate - which is lowered/relaxed
What is the Structural Anatomy & QRNs?
Non-distress "gooing" & "cooing"
•QRNs with closure or near closure at the back of the mouth (/g, k, h/)
What is motor control like in 2 month old?
Vocalizes in response to speech of others
•Increased responsiveness to caregivers
•Vocalizations are more syllable-like
•Sustained laughter emerges
Increased motor control increased control over vocalizations
What is motor control like in 3 month old?
•Production of fully resonant nuclei - volitional vowel-like sounds similar to /a/
What is motor control like in 5 month old?
Consonant-Vowel (CV) syllable vocalizations replace primarily vowel/single phoneme vocalizations
•Has a social element - infant will use this to attract attention
•Infant will vary volume, pitch, & rate
5 m.o. babbling watch how he tries to control his mouth throughout this video
What kind of babbling is happening during 5 months?
•Production of > 3 recognizable vowels
•Increased control over labial movement -- /b, p, w, m/ predominate; "raspberries"
•Syllable repetition is rare at this age - but better at imitating tone & pitch
What is motor control like in a 6 month old?
What is motor control like in a 8-11 month old?
Strings of CV-VC repetitions; "ma-ma-ma-ma;" goes from non-communicative vocalization to more purposeful verbalization
What is reduplicated babbling?
Immediate imitation of the communication of others
What is Echolalia?
Adjacent & successive syllables are not identical; begins to be used more in imitation
What is variegated babbling?
Learn sound play can gain attention
Use imitation to learn
What is motor developement like in infants?
Phonetically consistent forms
repeated motor behaviors and reduplicated babbling
What are some emergence of speech sound patterns?
long strings of unintelligible sounds with adult-like prosodic & intonational patterns
getting more into word like structured, not really words yet, repeated sounds, more sophisticated
What is jargon?
a consistent prosodic & speech-sound pattern created & used by a child to refer to an entity demonstrates the understanding that there is a sound-meaning relationship
•Function as "words" for an infant, but they are not necessarily based on adult words
•"chop chop" for helicopter; "tu tu" for train
What are Phonetically consistent forms?
such as arm movement and reduplicated babbling
What are repeated motor behaviors?
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