Floriculture Test Questions
Terms in this set (488)
The _____ (or art) are rules and guidelines to help a floral designer create a beautiful composition.
Principles of Design
The ideal stage to cut the majority of flowers is just:
before the flower is fully open
_____ is best achieved when the design is arranged from back of the container toward the front. This gives the arrangement a feeling of _____ and _____.
balance, visual depth, support
A typical _____ arrangement might contain a fully open flower.
A cluster of flowers on a stem is a(n):
Hanging method, covering method, treating with glycerin, pressing, making potpourri and commercial freeze drying are all methods to _____ or _____ plant materials.
The conductive tissue in the stem that transports water and minerals from roots to the leaves is called the:
When the pollen of a plant pollinates a flower on the same plant, it is called:
The male part of the flower is the pistil.
A rose that is beginning to wilt can be revived in a three step process if detected early enough.
Adventitious roots begin from the stem or a leaf.
Floral designs as we arrange them today are a blend of two styles:
Oriental and European
The first written design principles (rules) were established by the:
The basic European floral designs have become known as _____ arrangements.
The historic placements of three flowers in an oriental design signifies _____, _____, and _____.
heaven, man , earth
In all design work, the floral designer is striving for emphasis, balance, _____, _____, _____, and unity.
proportion, harmony, rhythm
_____ is achieved in an arrangement by creating an accent or focal point.
An arrangement may be composed of _____ or _____ balance.
The right conditions for seed germination are light or darkness _____, _____, and _____.
water, oxygen, favorable temperatures
_____ in an arrangement is accomplished by the scaling of flowers toward the focal point and is achieved by the use of flowers of varying size.
Plants are complex organisms made of _____ consisting of _____ and _____.
organs, tissue, cells
As roots grow, their tips are protected from coarse soil. This is accomplished by a mass of cells called the _____.
Wet conditions are also ideal for plants to become infected with soil-borne diseases such as:
Xylem is only located in the roots and leaves.
The flower typically consists of four different parts: Sepals, petals, _____, and _____.
The plant has four main structures: _____, _____, leaves, and flowers.
The perianth is essential to the reproductive functions of the flower.
The pistil has three main parts. They are:
stigma, style, ovary
_____ and _____ fuel plant growth.
The chemical process known as cellular respiration is the same as photosynthesis.
_____ enters through the stomata and is available to the _____ in the cells.
carbon dioxide, chlorophyll
The primary pigment involved in the manufacture of food is:
The flower stem is known as the:
The collection of petals on a flower is referred to as the:
Together, the sepals and the petals are called the:
A symmetrical design will appear to be the same on each side of a _____ center line.
Other floral design patterns that may be constructed by a florist are the _____, inverted T, _____, and free form.
right triangle, vertical
The harnessing of light energy is made possible by pigments found in:
Flowers are _____ percent water.
The offspring of two plants of the same or related species that differ genetically is said to be a:
The pH refers to the relative concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution and ranges from 1 to 14; ___ being acidic, ___ being neutral, ___ being alkaline.
1-6, 7, 8-14
_____ is the ability of seeds to germinate under different conditions and still produce healthy seedlings.
The two best times to harvest are late afternoon and morning.
Daisies should be cut:
The quality of seed used is very important to greenhouse growers. Seed quality refers to both ____ and ____.
Spring bulb flowers such as _____, _____, or _____, may be harvested in the bud stage.
tulips, daffodils, iris
Which of the following is not considered one of the general categories of nursery grown plants?
Which of the following is not considered a good characteristic of a good propagation medium?
Allows easy movement within container
Which of the following is not one of the top 10 nursery growing states?
If the pH of the growing medium is too low, the quickest remedy is the injection of acids into the irrigation system.
The minimum optimum temperature for poinsettia growth is:
60 degrees F
Which of the following is the primary reason for keeping flower buckets clean?
Prevent bacterial growth
Which of the following statements is true?
Neither answer is correct
If a florist were limited to two tools, the least useful ones to have would be:
Pruning shears and wire cutters
Flower preservatives should be used when conditioning flowers for which of the following reason:
Prevent bacterial growth
The pH range most suitable for Camellias is:
5.0 to 5.5
Wire sizes most often used by florists vary from ___ to ___.
A circular arrangement is a type of freestanding arrangement that can be seen from all sides.
A good alternative for perlite, this material provides aeration in the root media.
What is the major insect problem related to Boston Fern?
What ingredient related to city water causes leaf tip browning in spider plant leaves?
Adding soil amendments to growing medium can improve which of the following?
Both of these
Which of the following four is not considered a plant disease problem?
The major flower colors of an African violet include:
Red, purple, blue, pink, and white
The growth regulator often used to control marketable plant heights of potted tulips, dahlias, and lilies is:
What temperature range will cause chilling injury to plants:
35-45 degrees F
Interiorscape plants do not need large quantities of fertilizer and should only be fertilized in the spring and summer.
The ideal temperature range for interiorscape plants is:
70 to 80 F in day and 60-65 F at night
Which of the following is not a direct result of light intensity and duration in greenhouse crops?
Which of the following are considered freestanding greenhouses?
All of these
Successful advertising to a target audience is based on the three profit "P's." Which one of the following is not part of the three profit P's?
When studying the floral decorations of the earliest cultures, one learns that the Egyptians valued _____ and _____.
simplicity and repetition.
A line mass design has a linear aspect and massed central area. It is a combination of the _____ line style and the _____ mass style.
Japanese and European
Who added dried flowers or grains to fresh floral designs?
Nosegays, developed by the French and the forerunner of today's wedding bouquets, were developed to provide a fragrant, handheld decoration during social events.
What style has three major placements of flowers or branches?
Three of the following four factors are important when considering water quality for fresh flowers. Which one is not?
As part of conditioning process, flowers should remain at room temperature for two to three hours for what purpose?
There are three main ingredients in floral preservatives. Which of the following is not one of these ingredients?
Drypacked flowers are flowers that are cooled very quickly at the grower and kept cool throughout the shipping process.
When growing orchids, a hygrometer is used to measure:
An arrangement's maximum height depends on the type of plant material, theme, container, and artistic expression of the client.
Factors which enable a floral designer to develop a dominant impact for an event include:
Both of these
When creating an arrangement, there is value in using both glossy and varied textures. What is the role of the varied texture?
To hold attention
The design element _____ allows each flower to be seen in the design and creates a vital, interesting aspect within the design.
Which of the following is not one of the three broad categories of form?
Which of the following is a common term used to describe hiding the elements that hold the design together, such as taping?
cover your mechanics
The flowers and leaves of a rose are mottled and streaked with silver, and dusty black droppings have collected. This damage is indicative of:
Another term for a chenille stem is a pipe cleaner.
An arrangement of flowers in which the flowers have all fallen to the outer ring is commonly referred to as:
a doughnut arrangement
A naturalistic design if an arrangement that looks like a:
All of the following are related to servicing a wedding except one. Which does not belong in this group?
coordinating the throwing of the bouquet
How is the size of a casket spray determined?
Type of casket
A weakness associated with the ratio mark-up method of pricing includes all of the following elements except one Which should not be included?
changes in wholesale prices
What is Horticulture?
Horticulture is the culture of plants for food, comfort, and beauty.
Foliage plants are plants grown and sold for their beautiful colored leaves and stems.
What are Pesticides?
chemical materials used to kill pests
Pesticides are used to help control:
weeds, insects, diseases, and other organisms that can damage crops
What areas are in landscape horticulture?
all areas that deal with the production and use of plants to make our outdoor environment more appealing
According to The Retail Florists Business, included in the list of traditional rules to achieve food design are all but one of the following. Which one is not included?
even numbers should be used in arrangements when fewer than 10 flowers of one kind are used
Placing wet sphagnum moss in a frame for funeral and Christmas wreaths is called:
A very popular and relatively simple corsage style is one that features two flowers.
Mass market is the sale of floral products:
all of these
The major components in the photosynthesis process are carbon dioxide, water, light, and chlorophyll.
Perennials are those plants that life for:
more than two seasons
What is the purpose of plant propagation?
to produce new and better breeds of plants at a fast rate
What is a weed?
plant that is growing out of place or an unwanted plant
What civilization started using flowers?
The Russian civilization is believed to be the one to have started using flowers.
How hot should the water be in flower buckets?
100 to 105 degrees
Where in a floral arrangement should light-covered flowers be placed?
near the top
What is the common name for the Gypsophilia flower?
When did plastic flowers become popular in the US?
Florists usually create a symmetrical-triangular style arrangement for what occasions?
all of these
Using your thumb and forefinger to remove the young tip growth of a stem is called:
Unlike most plants, ferns produce dust like spores, not seeds.
The pierce wiring technique works best on flowers that have a:
Asexual propagation is the reproduction of new plants from the stems, leaves, or roots of a parent plant. How does sexual propagation differ?
sexual propagation involved the reproduction of new plants with the use of seeds
What is the vase life?
the length of time cut flowers and foliage live after they have been cut
Floriculture is the "culture of flowers."
What is floral production?
the growing of flowering or foliage crops to sale size or maturity
If a florist were limited to two tools, the most useful ones to have would be:
sharp knife and floral sheers
Pot mums in 6" pots should average _____ flowering shoots per pot.
This fungus attacks a wide variety of ornamental plants, probably causing more losses than any other single pathogen:
Solarization is one of the top three primary ways heat is lost in a greenhouse.
The genus and species names Dianthus caryophylius identifies what flower?
Excessively short stems in tulips planted outdoors are do to:
warm spring temperatures and lack of winter cooling
Upper leaves which show intervenal chlorosis probably suffer from:
an iron deficiency
A dried branch, bleached by the sun, used in decorations is called:
What does the xylem do for a plant?
transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves
Some questions a floral designer should ask when designing arrangements for a specific room are as follows: "What size is the room?", "What is the ceiling height?", "How many tables will there be?"
The most popular mechanics item used to support floral arrangement is:
The most important environmental factor in orchid culture is:
watering and water quality
Specialty cut flowers may be defined as:
cut flowers other than rose, carnations, and chrysanthemums
Which of the following arrangements would not be suitable for a wedding?
full couch spray arrangement
Without a day/night fluctuation of _____ to _____ degrees F, orchids will grow plenty of healthy foliage, but may stubbornly refuse to flower.
10 to 15
Today, imports account for very little of the cut flowers sold in the US.
What gives growers the ability to control environmental conditions affecting a crop?
Shape is two-dimensional, while form is:
Proper handling of flowers serves to extend their vase life or the length of time cut flowers and foliage live after they have been cut.
The covering of a greenhouse is often referred to as the:
_____ are devices used to automatically turn greenhouse systems on or off.
_____ is the best glazing material for the production of floriculture crops.
Leaves are _____ with the responsibility of making _____.
Most photosynthetic activity occurs in the _____ of cells.
Roots support the above ground growth of a plant because they absorb _____ and _____, and they _____ the plant.
water, minerals, anchor
_____ are the reproductive organs of a plant.
Plants only have two main structures.
A single flower on a flower stem or peduncle is called a:
Cellular respiration is the _____ of photosynthesis in that energy is released as the stored sugars are broken down.
_____ is responsible for cell division and differentiation.
_____ are naturally occurring chemicals produced by plants to _____ growth.
Synthetic growth regulators are not produced by plants.
Plants are propagated in what two ways?
Sexual and Asexual
_____ has changed the import/export side of the floriculture industry.
What factors are involved in seed germination?
all of these
The most widely used method of asexual propagation in the floriculture industry is stem cutting.
_____ rank as the third most popular cut flower in the world.
The United States cut flower market relies heavily on imports from other countries.
After being placed in a floral preservative solution, how long should the flowers remain at room temperature for efficient uptake of the solution?
2 to 3 hours
The Oriental and the American designs differ because, in the American design, every flower has a specific meaning and an exact location. This does not apply in the Oriental style.
What pH is recommended for fresh flowers in solution?
3 to 4.5
Ethylene gas is an odorless, colorless gas that is produced in a lab to rejuvenate wilted flowers.
Underwater cutting is recommended especially for roses to ensure that _____, not _____, enters the xylem.
Floral preservatives should be used because they will _____ the lasting qualities of fresh flowers.
An English painter by the name of _____ developed the S curve in the 18th century because he thought a curve was very pleasing to the eye.
Name the colors of the color wheel in order.
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet
Floral production involves the growing of _____ and _____ for sale.
flowering, foliage crops
Shape and form are _____ in floral design.
A foot-candle is the amount of light falling on:
1 square foot surface located 1 food away from one candle
What are conical centerpieces?
cone-shaped, three dimensional isosceles triangles
Dried flowers with _____ stems may be used in designing by _____ them with wire, metal, or wooden picks, hollow stems, taped stems, or hot glue.
What is the best time of day to harvest plant materials for drying?
middle of day
Percent germination is the percentage of _____ that will _____ and _____.
seeds, sprout, grow
Damping-off is a common _____ disease in germinating seeds and seedlings.
There are 17 elements needed to provide the necessary plant nutrients. Macronutrients are the _____ nutrients that are needed in _____ amounts.
The international wholesale market for cut flowers and foliage is located in:
The Oriental cultures that developed while the Greek and Roman cultures were developing had their own floral practices. One that is still taught today is the _____ design method.
Three factors that are very important when considering water quality for fresh flowers are:
pH, hardness, salinity
The Ikenobo floral design was developed in what country?
For optimum vase life, most cut flowers should be stored at temperatures as close to ___ degrees F as possible.
All foliage plants must be _____ prior to installing in an interior area.
Three types of designs found in American flower arranging are line-mass, mastoid, and lunar.
The most influential and important person in all the ancient arts of China was:
Good mineral or garden soils have about _____ percent of pore space.
True bulbs are classified as tunicate or non-tunicate.
Bird-of-Paradise is the common name, what is the Genus-Species?
The Easter lily crop is difficult to grow because:
Easter falls on a different date each year
The Retail Florist business has been in existence for over ____ years.
The width of an arrangement is less than _____ the height, except in a horizontal (centerpiece) design.
Odd numbers should be used in arrangements when fewer than _____ flowers of one kind are used.
_____ is a term used to describe the practices that get bulbs to grow and produce flowers.
Green plants do not have the ability to produce their own food.
A tunicate bulb has a dry, papery covering called a:
Foliage plants are _____ and _____ plants, either woody or non-woody, that are successfully grown indoors.
_____ is the art and science of selecting, placing, and maintaining plants to improve and enhance the appearance of the indoor environment.
Double potting is the act of placing a pot next to an identical pot with the same plant and displaying the pots together.
The interpretation of Chinese flower arrangements deals with three important principles: the art of contemplation as practiced by Confucius, the principle of the preservation of life as taught by Buddhism, and the floral symbolism which has developed as a form of folklore.
The Oriental country best known for its floral art is:
A _____ is a greenhouse designed for the display of plants.
The importance of the growing medium rests with four basic function. They are: holds water, provides nutrients, permits the exchange of gasses, and provides _____ for the plant.
_____ capacity is the measure of a medium's capacity to hold nutrients.
Organic media used in greenhouses have between ___ and ___ percent pore space.
75 and 85
Lilies are ____ bulbs.
Easter is the first Sunday following a full moon after March 21; therefore, growers must schedule their crops for the Easter lily different each year.
The Genus-species, Erica sp has a common name of:
An arrangement should be ___ to ___ times the height of a tall container or the length of an elongated container.
1.5 to 2
To acclimate a plant, the grower moves the plant from the lower light (not full sun) growing area to progressively _____ levels before shipping to an interiorscape.
The hook method of wiring for floral arrangements is used for:
flat headed flowers
What is the purpose of "pinching" plants?
helps the plants become more bushy
"In the past, your stem tip cuttings of Verbena produced an 85% rooting rate. You have contracted with Classic Retail Nursery for 2000 4" pots of homestead verbena for April 1st. Using your records, approximately how many cuttings should you propagate to have 2000 plants ready by April 1st?
helps the plants become more bushy
You are producing a crop of 500 Geranium plants. It is time to transplant the rooted cuttings into 6" standard pots. One cubic foot of potting media will fill 16 pots. How many 3 cubic foot bags of potting media will you need?
How much will the media cost for your crop of 100 Betterboy Tomatoes if you grow the tomatoes in one-gallon nursery containers? One cubic foot of media will fill 9 one-gallon containers. Each 3 cubic foot bag of media costs $ 18.75.
"Choose the correct materials below to air layer a Dracena Corn Plant.
"Which of the following is a growth regulator?
sphagnum moss, knife, rooting hormone, plastic, mist bottle, twist ties
Pinching is a process that:
Which of the following is a growth regulator?
Which of the following is not generally used as a potted crop?
Which of the following is primarily used as a cut flower crop?
Identify the flower considered a line flower:
Large leaves are often removed from a germanium plant in late winner to:
Permit more light to reach young growth
A shade cloth is pulled over a greenhouse to:
An insecticide should never be used in the same sprayer the has been used to apply:
A cultivated variety is referred to as a:
How many extra plants would you order if you need 300, buy you place an order for 5% extra, just in case some dies or get damaged?
Which of the following should not be used as a bedding plant in Georgia in June?
parts per million
Which of the following is an organic material?
The best time to prune azaleas is...
just after flowering
How many pounds of nitrogen are in a 100 pound bag 10-15-10?
Stem cuttings are used to propagate
Ventilation is necessary in a greenhouse to...
all the answers listed
Most bedding plants are sexually propagated by...
none of the answers listed
Which of the following are common colors of poinsettias?
red, pink, white
The process by which the energy of sunlight is converted into chemical energy by green plants is known as:
10-10-10 is an example of:
provide the best artificial light source
Martha Stewart would like for you to choose a filler for her table arrangements. Which of the following is a filler?
What is IPM?
integrated pest arrangement
Chilling damage to tropical plants occurs at what temperature?
35 to 45
______ is known as the father of modern genetics.
The growing, harvesting, storing, processing, and marketing of fruits and nuts...
Occurs when wind, insects, or animals transfer pollen grains from the anther to the stigma...
Transports water and nutrients from roots to other parts of the plant...
Bearded iris have what type of roots?
Which crop produces stolons?
Which of the following plants produce adventitious roots?
English ivy, heart leaf philodendron
_____________ plays an important role in getting Easter lilies to flower on time.
A greenhouse cooling system where large exhaust fans draw air through a moistened pad mounted on the opposite end of the structure is called...
Molluscicide is used to control...
Identify the signal words that may be used on a pesticide label...
danger, warning, caution
best management practices
What is a chemical messenger produced by plant tissue that controls plant growth?
Hardiness refers to a plants ability to...
withstand cold temperatures
downward movement of water in the soil
Crushed limestone is added to the soil to...
raise the pH
The type of pot used in plant production depends on what factors?
growth habit of the plants
____________ is the most widely used irrigation system used for potted plants?
__________ are naturally occurring nutrient materials that are derived from plants or animals.
Thermoperiodic describes a plants responses to...
changes in day and night temperatures
Bubbles of air enter the end of the cut flower stem and block water movement. What practice(s) may be used to reverse it?
All of the answers listed
A floral arrangement is ___________ if the two halves are equal in size and shape.
Floral arrangements should be...
1 ½ times as tall as the container
Which of the following plants may be reproduced by using leaf blade cuttings?
Indirect seeding is...
planted in germination media and transplanted
______________ is one of the greatest causes of failure in growing house plants.
The most serious pesticide poisonings occur:
During mixing and loading
_____________ are horizontal underground stems.
"The measure of how poisonous a chemical is after a single exposure is _____________ toxicity.
LD50 is the measure for _______________ toxicity.
All soil used in house plant mixes should be sterilized to kill certain pests. Which of the following is Not one of the organisms that will be killed during sterilization?
_________________ is a sterile, lightweight mica product.
Orchids like _____% to ______% humidity.
The ______________ in the stems produces all new cells.
The organic compounds that affect the enlargement and division of cells, tissue differentiation, dormancy, leaf aging, and leaf drop are known as ___________________.
A plants response to temperature is known as:
What is the fertilizer element that is used by the plant to make chlorophyll molecules?
In Floral Design, placing objects in strategic locations to create a visual feeling of stability in a design is known as _______________________.
Baby's Breath is an example of a ______________flower.
The insecticide Mr. Jones sprayed in his greenhouse had a skull and crossbones on the label. What is the allowed re-entry time for the area treated with this chemical?
___________________ is the branch of horticulture dealing with the production, storage, processing, and marketing of vegetables.
A flower containing both stamens and pistils is known as a________________ flower.
Which of the following is not necessary for seed germination?
"The ability of a plant to withstand colder temperatures is known as
_________________________ is using foliage plants inside buildings to create the feeling of outdoors.
___________________ describes the evaporation of water from the plant leaf.
What is added to acidic soil to raise the pH?
Which of the following is the proper sequence of the layers of a leaf?
Lower epidermis, spongy layer, chloroplasts, palisade layer, upper epidermis
IPM is an acronym for: "
Integrated pest material
The petals on a flower are actually leaves.
"Superior nursery is selling begonias, petunias, and marigolds at $9.50 per flat. They are selling impatiens, and ageratum at $11.75 per flat and Dusty Miller, salvia and snapdragons at $7.25 per flat. Mrs. Cooper buys 3 begonias, 2 marigolds, 1 Dusty Miller, 1 impatiens, and 4 salvia. The tax is 6 percent. What is her total cost?
"The fertilizer element __________________ increases the plant's resistance to disease.
Which of the following would not be effective in lowering the pH in alkaline soils?
_________________ seed are those that are soaked in a salt solution of KCL or ethyl alcohol in order to make the growth hormones or enzymes to become active and the seed radical or young root to start growth.
Soil sterilization requires heating the soil at
1800F for half an hour
The watering system that uses the least amount of water
The best disease control program is started with
a sterile planting media, container, and a sanitary environment
When transplanting bedding plants, the soil temperature needs to be
Which of the following is considered to be a cool color in a floral design?
A Jardiniere is a "
decorative container used to hold potted plants.
"____________________ is a rigid greenhouse covering that is made of double layers, has high light transmission, is flame retardant and has the strongest resistance to breakage.
Silt has soil particles from _____ to _____ mm in diameter.
0.05 to 0.002
"Jan works at Sunshine Florist after school and on Saturday mornings. She is paid $5.65 per hour. On the week of March 5, she worked 29 3/4 hours. If the florist withheld $6.38 for taxes and Social Security, what would be her gross pay.
"Which of the following fertilizer elements is Not a micro-nutrient?
A _______________ is the entire whorl of petals.
"Which of the following would Not be listed on a pesticide label?
The original formulator
Which of the following bulbs are the easiest for forcing?
_______________ is a process of events whereby the seed embryo goes from a dormant state to an active growing state.
Which of the following is an advantage of germinating seed in 1020 poly-flats?
Little equipment is necessary
Which of the following is not a cost efficient method of cooling a greenhouse?
Central air-conditioning system
_____________ is the simplest form of pruning and is used to encourage lateral branching, remove unwanted growth, and increase the size of flowers.
Which of the following plant growth regulators could be used on Poinsettias to shorten stem length?
All of the answers listed
Which of the following are primary colors?
red, yellow and blue
The color harmony produced by using various shades, tints, and tones of one color is called:
The most popular form of asexual reproduction of plants is
The forcing time for Easter Lilies is about ___ days.
The Begonia plant has very tiny seeds which should be covered with ____ inch(es) of soil when planted
Cycocel is a (an)
Water and food are translocated in plants through tissues called
xylem and phloem.
A solenoid valve
is a switch often used for controlling water flow.
Cindy discovers that her bedding plant starts, like her, are leggy, pale and weak. This could be due to
All of the answers listed
Which of the following is considered in the trade to be a Holland flower?
Weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) moved directly from a high light growing area to an interior room will often drop its leaves because of :
During which seasons will black cloths not be needed for short day plants such as cosmos to bloom, assuming no interruption of the natural day length?
Fall and winter
The first part of the new plant to emerge from the seed is the ___________.
The red parts of the poinsettia are not really blooms but modified leaves called
Plants should be watered early in the day
to aid in disease prevention.
Which is not a greenhouse insect pest?
Soil should be heated to ____ for 30 minutes for sterilization?
A roof or ridge vent is part of the greenhouse cooling system and is effective if properly used because?
hot air rises out of the vent.
When a plants roots have completely filled its pot and become overly crowded, the plant is said to be
Which group of holidays is most important for florist sales?
Christmas, Mothers Day, Valentines Day
Jackie sold 875 potted Geraniums at $3.76 each. Her cost of production was $ 2.12. What is her net profit?
Which group of plants is all general propagated seeds?
Petunia, tomato, pepper
"John used seven different kinds of flowers in a floral arrangement. He ignored the principle of:
The three most common type floral designs for funerals are referred to as
wreaths, sprays, mixed pots
"Better Boy, Early Girl, Big Boy, Rutgers and Homestead are all varieties of
Saucers for plants to sit in often cause problems because.
root rot can develop if water is left standing in the saucer.
Topsoil is seldom used in greenhouse production today because
All of the answers listed
The percentage of potassium in a 5-10-15 fertilizer is
Fumigant pesticides are in a _______ form.
What do you call a mechanical device, which introduces a concentrated fertilizer solution into the pipeline used for watering plants?
If a soil pH is acidic, apply:
Plant pathology is the study of:
Backflow of water and chemicals into the pipes of the domestic water system can be prevented by installing a(n):
What type of gloves should be worn when handling pesticides?
A six man crew works on a job from 7:30 a.m.- 4:00 p.m. and takes 30 minutes for lunch. If your policy is to charge $13.00 per man-hour for labor, how much should you charge for this job?
Hydroponics is a system of growing plants in:
For a compost pile to break down rapidly, it should be:
All of the answers listed
What document(s) listed below is required by law to be on-hand and available to all employees?
Material safety data sheets
The correct way to soak floral foam is to:
drop it into a pan and let it soak and sink slowly until about 1/4@ remains out the water.
Plants are described as hardy if they can:
survive the winters in the area in which they are planted
Which of the following is NOT a commonly used soil mix ingredient?
ground pine straw
The process of manufacturing carbohydrates from the raw materials in air and water is
"The process of removing the tips of shoots so as to promote lateral branch development in mums is known as
Bacillus thuringiensis is
a bacterial insecticide
Which statement is true concerning wire and ribbon sizes?
The larger the number, the smaller the wire and narrower the ribbon
The standard size for hanging baskets is
A Chrysanthemum x morifolium is classified for floriculture uses as a:
flowering potted plant
. Black spot of rose is caused by:
The process of a seed going through a time of cold temperature before it germinates is called:
The process of propagating plants from cuttings is known as:
A plant may be suffering from _______ if the leaves have yellow spots, patches, or streaks.
The most commonly used material for holding silk flowers in floral arrangements is:
. ____________ occurs when a plant does not have enough moisture for the cells to remain turgid.
Plants maintain a healthy heat and moisture balance through a process called:
Which plant below is matched to its usual or common method of propagation?
Which plant listed below would be least tolerant of a very sunny location?
Pores or openings in the leaf that allow the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor is defined as a:
A group of cells at the tip of a root is called the root ________________.
"The male parts of the flower are a slender stalk called the _______________ and an enlarged part at the end called the _______________ where pollen grains are formed.
cross-pollination often produces seedling variation.
House plants grown near a window in winter may lean toward the light in response to a reaction called:
When new growth on a plant is weak and spindly with large gaps between the leaves, the plant is most likely suffering from lack of :
The life cycle of an annual plant:
is completed in one growing season
Seedlings should be transplanted:
when the first true leaves are have developed
Plants can be propagated vegetatively because of the process of cell division which is known as:
Bulb crops are commonly propagated by:
separation of divisions
Sugars are manufactured in the _______________ of plants.
Hook wiring is the most appropriate technique for wiring a(n):
Which of the following would NOT be considered a foliage plant?
Which is the best preservative listed for cut flowers? (Home remedy)
lemon-lime soft drinks
Which of the following would give a prospective employer a summary of your education, work experience and professional accomplishments?
The process of moving one plant from one location and planting it in another is called:
The process of reproducing a plant by using small pieces of tissue in an artificial medium under sterile conditions is called:
Root systems in plants are classified as either tap or .
The main function of plant leaves is:
Ferns are different from most horticultural crops because they reproduce from:
Photoperiodism is a plant response to:
The main disadvantage of producing plants from seeds is that:
cross-pollination often produces seedling variation.
African violets are usually propagated by:
leaf petiole cuttings
Water hose ends should be kept off the ground or floor to prevent:
spread of disease.
What is the main advantage of raised beds?
Raised beds have better drainage.
Which is commonly used for a cut flower?
With potted plants, the presence of a white, flaky film on the soil surface or pot rim (especially on clay pots) indicates:
Which of the flowers listed is least shade tolerant?
Proper maintenance of marigolds in landscape beds includes:
Which of the following is true in terms of customer service?
Customers should always be greeted right away.
The of hydrangeas can be changed by changing the pH of the soil
All of the following are principles of design used in floral design EXCEPT:
Which of the following solutions is best to disinfect used pots?
1 part bleach to 10 parts water
Which type of cutting is wounded to improve rooting?
used as line flowers in floral designs.
A pollen grain moves first from the anther to the _________ to begin its journey to the ovary for fertilization.
A compost pile should be
All of the answers listed
What plant pest is most active at night?
What document(s) listed below is required by law to be on-hand and available to all employees in case of emergency?
material safety data sheets
A material used to kill insects is called a(n):
Diseases grow best on _______ leaves.
A Ficus benjamina plant is classified for floriculture uses as a:
Damping off is caused by:
What instrument measures soluble salts in soils?
The process of using pollen from one plant to pollinate another plant is called:
Which of the following is a normal length of time for the production of most potted mum varieties (from potting of the rooted cuttings to the selling date)?
Azaleas bloom naturally in the:
Which of the following would be a problem in growing potted azaleas?
Adding 2 teaspoons of hydrated lime to each pot.
Which of the following foliage combinations would create the greatest texture contrast in a floral arrangement?
English Ivy and asparagus fern
Which of the following night temperatures is best for growing tomatoes from seedlings to bedding plant size?
An initial symptom of fertilizer burn is leaf:
Which plant below is NOT matched to its usual or common method of propagation?
azaleas - division
The cause of tall, leggy plants can often be traced to:
crowded growing conditions.
Which plant listed below would be most tolerant of a very sunny location in the greenhouse?
Green spider plants grow faster than variegated spider plants, probably because:
it has more green area for photosynthesis.
Mr. Aged told the class that the temperature for rooting cuttings should be no lower than 70 degrees F. He was talking about the:
temperature of the rooting media
"Food produced in the leaves is moved to other parts of the plant through the:
"There is/are _____ type(s) of growing floors.
Floriculture production in the United States is valued at about $____________ at farm gate.
The leading floriculture production states are __________, ___________, and ____________.
California, Florida, Texas
Florida floriculture crop production is valued at $______________.
Watering greenhouse plants is one of the easiest jobs faced by growers.
When should plants be watered?
just before wilting or water stress occurs
Perched water table means that the container has ___________ at the bottom of the container right after watering, when drainage has occurred.
_____ factors need to be considered to achieve a successful fertility program.
When certain elements are provided in excess to plants, uptake of other nutrients may be hindered. One example of a mineral antagonism is the _____________________________ interaction; a 1:1 ratio is recommended for most floriculture crops.
The optimum ph range for most crops growing in a soilless medium is__________.
American floriculture crops are considered to be ________ quality if they are well branched and _______, with multiple flowers that open ______________.
high, full, simultaneously
True or False. Pinching artificially accelerates a plant's branching and growers commonly use three types of pinches.
The process of pinching a plant removes the ________ factory and eliminates the ________ concentration of the __________ hormone from the upper portion of the plant.
auxin, high, inhibitory
When the source of ________ is removed, the concentration of the __________ drops quickly, thereby releasing lateral branches from _________ dominance and allowing them to develop.
auxin, hormone, apical
A time tested rule is to pinch when roots are ________________ and __________ of the _________ after removing the plant from its pot.
visible at the sides, bottom, medium
_______________ growers first began growing their rose plants using bent stems in the 1980's.
Rose plants used for the bent stem technique are started as __________ node cuttings, which are rooted and grown frequently in _______ _______ _______.
single, rock wool cubes
Cut roses are divided into hybrid teas, spray roses and _________.
There are less than _________ dozen rose breeders specializing in commercial cut flower varieties.
Roses generally are graded according to _________ of stem.
The greenhouse comes "alive" only after its __________, or __________, is applied. A glazing's primary purpose is to allow __________ into the greenhouse while allowing the grower to manipulate the environment __________ the greenhouse.
glazing, cover, light, inside
There is/are _____ type(s) of growing floors.
5, natural soil, sand and gravel floors, ground cloth, porous concrete, concrete
The __________ component of watering is the easy part because the scientific principals can be taught and learned. The ________ of watering is extremely difficult to teach. It is determining when plants need to be watered and then applying water properly.
While it cost ________ to produce pinched plants in terms of _________ and _______, the _________ quality is achieved with pinched plants in terms of size, fullness and flower performance.
more, labor, time, highest
True or False. Flower arranging differs from other arts in that it has its own media (arrangers grow their own materials).
The Japanese confine their displays of flower arrangements to specific areas as a matter of __________ and ___________.
The Chinese method of handling flowers is founded on __________, preservation of life, and appreciation of __________.
Confucius taught that real enjoyment consist of ___________and ____________.
True or False. A few flowers in a vase can describe the whole life history of a plant, as well as display the beauty of a perfect bloom.
A creative art form using space along with line, form, color, and texture to create the floral arrangements by using plant material and other components.
Two or three colors adjacent to each other on the color wheel.
analogous color harmony
Two sides of a vertical axis in an arrangement that are different in composition but equal in visual weight.
A circle of greens decorated with fruits, nuts, cones, seed pods, or berries typical of the Renaissance period.
Della Robbia Wreath
The art of placing floral material in a container in a pleasing manner following various artistic principles.
Bringing plants into bloom at a time other than normal in nature.
A circle of small flowers arranged around one central flower similar to a nosegay.
A new concept in creative art form free from conventional ideas and patterns, nongeometric.
An all around arrangement to be viewed from all sides.
Tints, tones, and shades of one hue.
monochromatic color harmony
A tight hand bouquet of fragrant flowers.
A container of unusual form or shape such as a heart, animal, etc.....
Probably the most influential factor in advancing flower arrangement in this country has been the _______________________.
National Council of State Garden Clubs
The American Style of flower arrangement stresses clear cut designs, _______________, ____________, and ______ of expression.
plant forms, originality, freedom
In any style of flower arranging, past or present, American, European, or Oriental, there are __________________ to be considered _________________________________________________.
6 design elements, line, form, space, texture, color and harmony
There are ____________ of design. All the _____________ of design should be present in every good arrangement, but their relative importance will vary. They are_________________ _.
7 principles, principles, balance, scale, rhythm, repetition, unity, focus, and harmony
True or False. Various colors will produce different emotional and psychological effects.
Violets and purples give a ___________________ sometimes __________.
spiritual feeling, sad
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