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US History UNIT D: [Ramsey BHS Spring 2019]
Terms in this set (34)
A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
Totalitarian regimes, in contrast to a dictatorship, establish complete political, social, and cultural control over their subjects, and are usually headed by a charismatic leader. Fascism is a form of right-wing totalitarianism which emphasizes the subordination of the individual to advance the interests of the state. Nazi fascism's ideology included a racial theory which denigrated "non-Aryans," extreme nationalism which called for the unification of all German-speaking peoples, the use of private paramilitary organizations to stifle dissent and terrorize opposition, and the centralization of decision-making by, and loyalty to, a single leader.
Signed in 1938 between Great Britain, Germany, and France that gave part of Czechoslovakia to Germany; Chamberlain said it guaranteed "peace in our time"
1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Legislation proposed by FDR and adopted by congress, stating that the U.S could either sell or lease arms and other equipment to any country whose security was vital to America's interest -> military equipment to help Britain war effort was shipped from U.S
Cash and Carry Policy
1939. Law passed by Congress which allowed a nation at war to purchase goods and arms in US as long as they paid cash and carried merchandise on their own ships. This benefited the Allies, because Britain was dominant naval power.
USS St. Louis
a German ship carrying around 1000 Jews; left for Cuba in the hopes of entering America. Although Cuba and the U.S. denied the entrance of most Jews, when the ship returned to Europe, European countries took in the rest of the Jews.
Places where Japanese-Americans were required to be housed during World War II, under President Franklin D. Roosevelt's
Executive Order 9066. Also called internment camps.
Korematsu v. US
1944 Supreme Court case in which the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor
Invasion of Poland 1939
Germans invaded Poland using blitzkrieg.
Britain and France declared war and Canada a week later.
Started the 2nd World war
Fall of France
the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War. In the six weeks from 10 May 1940, German forces defeated Allied forces by mobile operations and conquered France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, bringing land operations on the Western Front to an end until 6 June 1944. Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940 and invaded France over the Alps.
In Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes and then along the Somme valley, cutting off and surrounding the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium, to meet the expected German invasion. When British, Belgian and French forces were pushed back to the sea by the mobile and well-organised German operation, the British evacuated the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and French divisions from Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo.
German forces began Fall Rot (Case Red) on 5 June. The sixty remaining French divisions and two British divisions made a determined resistance but were unable to overcome the German air superiority and armoured mobility. German tanks outflanked the Maginot Line and pushed deep into France, occupying Paris unopposed on 14 June. After the flight of the French government and the collapse of the French army, German commanders met with French officials on 18 June to negotiate an end to hostilities.
On 22 June, the Second Armistice at Compiègne was signed by France and Germany. The neutral Vichy government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain superseded the Third Republic and Germany occupied the north and west coasts of France and their hinterlands. Italy took control of a small occupation zone in the south-east and the Vichy regime retained the unoccupied territory in the south, known as the zone libre. In November 1942, the Germans occupied the zone under Case Anton (Fall Anton), until the Allied liberation in 1944.
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
(FDR) , June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945), Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.
Allied commander in WW2 in Europe; helped plan the D-Day invasion at Normandy; 34th President
a member of the Women's Army Corp that was organized during World War II but is no longer a separate branch
Women enlisted "for the duration plus six months". They served not only in the Army (WAC), but also with the Navy (WAVES) and Coast Guard (SPARs). Although never officially members of the armed forces, Women Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs) provided critical support for the war effort.
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part during WWII.
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
Although he was not the emperor of Japan, as military leader and the new prime minister, he designed the Japan war plan in the Pacific theater.
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
Leapfrogging, also known as island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War II. The idea was to bypass heavily fortified Japanese positions and instead concentrate the limited Allied resources on strategically important islands that were not well defended but capable of supporting the drive to the main islands of Japan.
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
A series of court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
was convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: "Class A" crimes were reserved for those who participated in a joint conspiracy to start and wage war; "Class B" crimes were reserved for those who committed "conventional" atrocities or crimes against humanity; "Class C" crimes were reserved for those in "the planning, ordering, authorization, or failure to prevent such transgressions at higher levels in the command structure."
an experiment devised in 1961 by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, to see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure
Pros/Cons of use of nuclear bomb
Pros of Dropping the Atomic Bomb
1. Japan Avoided Being Invaded
If the United States did not drop the atomic bomb, Japan may have been turned into a colony of the United States. America had been preparing to invade Japan and take over when the atomic bomb became available. They decided this would be a better option to limit the amount of American lives that would have been lost if they invaded.
2. Saves Many Lives
The aim of the U.S. in dropping the atomic bomb was to save hundreds of lives of American soldiers. The U.S. was the very first country to develop an atomic bomb, their focus of using in it Hiroshima and Nagasaki was to show the world that they had it. This, inadvertently saved lives around the entire world.
3. All Japan POW's Released
All American POW's were released from Japan after the bomb was dropped in the two biggest cities of the country.
Although the United States achieved superpower, the country kept peace balanced across their different allies around the world. Having the atomic bomb and other nations observing its destructive power, peace talks and negotiations quickly began.
4 Cons of Dropping the Atomic Bomb
Many Japanese reportedly suffered from starvation. This is because the Japanese army took all of the food reserves and resources left after the bomb had been dropped. Massive cases of death due to hunger were reported in Japan. In fact, the number of deaths due to hunger is more than the number of casualties after the bomb was dropped.
2. Not Enough Time for Peace Negotiation
The Japanese were thought to surrender or to give up due to massive side attacks of the U.S. If the U.S. has demonstrated the effects of the bomb sooner, the Japanese could have been convinced to surrender and avoided the loss of lives. The United States did not give enough time to the Japanese to know that the bomb will hit Hiroshima as well as Nagasaki. It could have helped prevent the lost of civilian lives.
The United States spent $2 billion for the atomic bombs development, and many believed that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing was done only to justify the billion dollar project.
4. Massive Deaths
Japan sacrificed tens of thousands of civilian lives just to prove supreme power between the Soviet Union and the United States.
The United States and Japan have not predicted the aftermath of the bombing that led to massive loss of lives. However, the bombing has made Japan realize that they do not have supreme power over the U.S. Also, the bombing has made Japan withdrew its army from other countries that it has invaded, particularly in Asia.
political scientist who wrote extensively on evil; argued that the English language has an assortment of terms that describe violence but aren't carefully distinguished or analyzed
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