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nutrition exam #2
Terms in this set (42)
a class of nutrients that includes substances that cells can use for energy
Sugars and other small chains of hydrocarbon
examples of simple carbohydrates
glucose and fructose
Starches and most fibers, these are
polysaccharides which are chains of 10
or more simple carbohydrates bonded together
glucose, fructose, galactose (simple sugars)
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
simple sugar found in fruits
sugar that is part of lactose
made from fructose
high fructose corn syrup
sucrose, lactose, maltose
made up of TWO monosaccharides
glucose + glucose
glucose and fructose (table sugar)
glucose + galactose (milk sugar)
- Substances that sweeten and contribute energy to foods
- sugars added to foods during processing or preparation
sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol
substances that sweeten foods while providing few
or no kilocalories
high intensity sweetners
group of sweeteners that are extremely sweet tasting when compared to the same amount of sugar
These are comprised of 10 or more monosaccharides
starch and glycogen
Polysaccharides that contain
hundreds of glucose molecules bonded into chain like structures
Polysaccharides that contain 100s of glucose
molecules forming chainlike structures
Primary form in plants
starch in seeds is stored where?
starch in roots
Plants store energy in the roots, where they are not exposed to the environment.
- large fleshy roots used for large storage
human body stores glucose as glycogen
non-digestable plant material; most types are
forms of dietary fiber that dissolve or swell in
forms of dietary fiber do not swell in water
A syndrome marked by the presence of usually three or more of a group of factors (as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, high triglyceride levels, low HDL levels, and high fasting levels of blood sugar) that are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes.
where does the most digestion and absorption take place?
Absorbs water and forms feces
chemical and mechanical digestion
folds that increase surface area of the stomach
H.Pylori causes what
first part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas
Second part of the small intestine. Digestion takes place there, as well as some absorption of nutrients and water through the intestinal wall into the blood.
Third part of the small intestine. It connects to the cecum of the large intestine. Some digestion takes place there. There is absorption of nutrients and water through the wall of the into the blood.
(PKU) genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE is missing
type 1 diabetes
diabetes caused by a total lack of insulin production; usually develops in childhood, and patients require insulin replacement therapy to control the disorder
type 2 diabetes
Diabetes of a form that develops especially in adults and most often obese individuals and that is characterized by high blood glucose resulting from impaired insulin utilization coupled with the body's inability to compensate with increased insulin production.
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