crim exam 2


Terms in this set (...)

pledge system
Tithing, hue and cry, hundred, and constable
shire reeve and sheriff
a group of 10 families who collectively dealt with minor disturbances and breaches of the peace
hue and cry
a call for assistance, the policy of self-help that prevailed in villages demanded that everyone respond if a citizen raised a hue and cry to get their aid
an appointed official who administered and supervised the legal affairs of a small community
watch system
men were organized in church parishes to guard at night against disturbances and breaches of the peace under the direction of local constable
a group of 100 families responsible for maintaining order and trying minor offenses
shire reeve
the senior law enforcement figure in a county, the forerunner of todays sheriff
the chief law enforcement officer in a county
thief takers
private, paid police who profited both legally and criminally from the lack of formal departments, they were universally corrupt, taking profits not only from catching and informing on criminals, but also from receiving stolen property, theft, intimidation, perjury, and blackmail
robert peel
England's home secretary who guided through Parliament an "Act for Improving the Police in and near the Metropolis"
Metropolitan Police Act
established the first organized police force in London, was structured along military lines, members known from then on as "bobbies" after its creator
law enforcement in colonial America
-followed British model
-colonial sheriff
-paid on a fee system
-responded to citizen complaints
-collected taxes, supervised elections, other legal business
early police agencies
-First police force created in Boston(1838), the New York (1844), and Philadelphia (1854)

-Replaced night watch system

-Extreme corruption, lack of communication, very primitive
Modern Policing
Push to make police agencies more professional due to corruption and political influence (Boston Police Strike of 1919)
International Association of Chiefs of Police
August Vollmer
police chief of Berkely, CA
O.W. Wilson
pioneered the use of advanced training for officers and was instrumental in applying modern management and administrative techniques to policing
1960s and Beyond
-Supreme court decisions to control police operations and procedures

-civil unrest

-police-community relations

-Rodney king case
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
The arm of the US Justice Department that investigates violations of federal law, seeks to protect America from terrorist attacks, gathers crime statistics, runs a comprehensive crime laboratory, and helps train local law enforcement officers.
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
The federal agency that enforces federal drug control laws.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and explosives (ATF)
federal agency with jurisdiction over the illegal sale, importation, and criminal misuse of firearms and explosives and the disruption of untaxed liquor and cigarettes
department of homeland security (DHS)
Federal agency responsible for preventing terrorist attacks within the United States, reducing America's vulnerability to terrorism, and minimizing the damage and assisting in recovery from attacks that do occur.
US Marshals Service
Federal agency whose jurisdiction includes protecting federal officials, transporting criminal defendants, and tracking down fugitives.
US Department of Justice
Headed by the US attorney general and is empowered to enforce all federal laws, represent the US in court actions, conduct independent investigations
state law enforcement
-police nonurban areas

-texas rangers one of first state police agencies

-CT and PA created first modern state policed agencies

-function of state police varies by state
country law enforcement
sheriffs offices, sheriff is an elected official, county jails, courthouse security, law enforcement function
private policing
crime prevention, detection, and the apprehension of criminals carried out by private organizations or individuals for commercial purposes
metropolitan (municipal) law enforcement
•Local police agencies
-Temple Terrace PD
-Plant City

•Many different duties
-Traffic enforcement
-Investigative functions
-Service functions
-Order maintenance
body cams (pros and cons)
•Body-worn cameras for police officers
•Can be turned off/on in specific situations
•Storage issues
•Privacy concerns
identifying criminals
data mining
locating criminals
-enclosed space decision system (ESDS)
-through-wall radar
crime scene investigation
high definition surveying
crime mapping
hot spots
-hand geometry
-facial recognition
DNA testing
-DNA profiling
-CODIS: national DNA data base
social media
predictive analysis
-predictive analysis
-predict crimes, offenders, method, and time
police organization
•Independent agencies within the executive branch of government
-No specific administrative control from higher governmental authority

•Organized hierarchically, with clear chains of command
-Structure depends on size
-Police chief (commissioner) leads the organization (or sheriff)
patrol function
-Deter crime
-Maintain public order
-Respond rapidly
-Identify/apprehend violators
-Provide care/ assistance
-Traffic control
what do police do all day?
-usually non-crime-fighting related
-average police makes 2 arrests a month and one felony per year
-1/3 officers are assigned to non-enforcements duties
improving patrol
-Proactive policing and directed patrol
-Making arrests
-Rapid response
-Broken windows policing
-Using technology
proactive policing
a police department policy that emphasizes stopping crimes before they occur, rather than reacting to crimes that have already occurred
broken windows model
a term used to describe the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety
investigation function, ( how they are organized)
-in a variety of ways
-by crime type, burglary, robbery, crimes against persons, property crimes
- a combination of them
Kansas city experiment
•Designed to determine if police presence alone with deter would-be criminals from committing crime (1972-1973)
•Beats (an area that a police officer regularly patrols) were assigned one of three responses

-Control beats:
-Reactive beat:
-Proactive beats:
control beats
no change
reactive beat
no proactive police presence
proactive beats
increase the level of police presence
sting operation
an undercover police operation in which police pose as criminals to trap law violators
vice squads
police officers assigned to enforce morality-based laws, such as those on prostitution, gambling, and porn
improving investigations with technology
-Information technology/databases
-Criminal identification
-Record storage
-DNA profiling
improving investigations with forensic science
-Use of scientific techniques to investigate crime and solve cases
-CSI effect
-Broad range of scientific techniques and ability, with new technologies emerging
-Toxicology, blood pattern analysis, impression evidence, trace evidence
Community-oriented policing
programs and strategies designed to bring police and the public closer together and create a more cooperative working environment between them
challenges to community-oriented policing
-Defining community
-Defining roles
-Changing supervisor attitudes
-Reorienting police values
-Revised training
-Reoriented recruitment
problem oriented policing
a style of police operations that stresses proactive problem solving, rather than reactive crime fighting

-proactive problem solving and developing long-term community solutions
-police managers must learn how to develop community resources, design efficient and cost-effective solutions
-focus on hot spots of crime
broken windows policing
-neighborhood disorder creates fear
-neighborhoods give out crime-promoting signals
-police need citizens' cooperation
intelligence-led policing
•Philosophical change following 9/11
-Combines a homeland security focus with the many advances made in the realms of COP and POP

•Emphasizes information sharing, collaboration, an strategic solutions to crime problems at various levels
fusion centers
mechanisms to exchange information and intelligence, maximize resources, streamline operations, and improve the ability to fight crime and terrorism by analyzing data from a variety of sources
created to:
-Provide support for law enforcement
-Provide help for major incident operations
-Provide the means for community input
-Provide assistance to law enforcement executives
who are the police?
50 years ago
-white males
-high school degrees

-more racial and gender diversity
-higher education

Demographic make up
-13% women
11% members of racial minority groups
police culture
culture develops through on-the-job experiences
-the separate subculture has unhealthy consequences as well as benefits
-blue curtain
-core beliefs
blue curtain
the secretive, insulated police culture that isolates officers from the rest of society
the belief that most peoples actions are motivated solely by personal needs and selfishness
police personality
-dogmatic, authoritarian, suspicious
-the work itself develops this personality
policing styles
developing a working attitude, or style, through which to approach policing. some police may view the job as a well-paid civil service position that emphasizes careful compliance with written departmental rules and procedures, others may see themselves as part of the " thin blue line" that protects the public from wrong doers
police discretion
the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system, example: deciding whether to make an arrest
emotional intelligence
The capability of monitoring one's own feelings and actions in order to guide action
legal factors
Far less discretion with serious crimes
environmental factors
the expectations and concerns of the community
departmental factors
-Where and how the department operates
-What directives are issued to influence police conduct
peer factors
-Cohesion among police officers
-Behavioral expectations
situational factors
-Demeanor of the suspect
-The way a crime or situation is encountered
extralegal factors
-Offender and victim characteristics
-Do police practice racial profiling
job stress
-Constant vigilance (on duty 24/7)
-Internal conflict with administrative policies
-Difficult to leave the job at work
-Lack of equipment, training, or supervisory support
-Can cause injury and diminish decision making
-Controlling fatigue
violence and brutality
-A small percentage of offices are involved in use-of-force incidents
-Overreaction to stress and social isolation play roles
types of corruption
-Meat eaters vs. grass eaters
-Internal corruption
-Selective enforcement
-Active criminality
-Bribery and extortion
knapp commission
a public body that led an investigation into police corruption in New York and uncovered a widespread network of payoffs and bribes
meat eaters
a term for police officers who actively solicit bribes and vigorously engage in corrupt practices
grass eaters
a term for police officers who accept payoffs when everyday duties place them in a position to "look the other way"
controlling corruption
-Strengthen internal administrative review
-Accountability system
-Outside review boards and special prosecutors
-Citizen review boards
use of force/ continuum
-use of force is not common
-17% of U.S. residents (16 or older) had a face-to-face contact with the police
-9 out of 10 who had contact with police felt officers acted properly
-In 1.4% of all stops, the officer either used or threatened to use force
-African American's and Hispanics were two to three more times more likely than whites to be searched during traffic stops
deadly force
force that is likely to cause death or bodily harm
suicide by cop
a form of suicide in which a person acts in aggressive manner with police officers in order to induce them to shoot to kill
nondeadly force
force that is unlikely to cause death or significant bodily harm
less-lethal weapons
weapons designed to disable or immobilize than kill suspected criminals
Rules surrounding interrogations and confessions
-The 5th amendment guarantees people the right to be free from self-incrimination
-The Miranda warning
-Standards for questioning after a defendant is taken into custody
-If not given the Miranda warning, evidence from the interrogation cannot be admitted at trial
-When must officers give Miranda warnings?
Rules surrounding search and seizure
-Search and Seizure
-The fourth amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures
-Search Warrants
-Requested from court
-Require an affidavit establishing proper grounds
-The affidavit must state place to be searched
Warrantless searches and when they are appropriate
-Six situations
1. Search incident to lawful arrest
2. Stop and frisk
3. Automobile search
4. Consent search
5. Plain view
6. Exigent circumstances
The exclusionary rule
All evidence obtained by unreasonable searches and seizures is inadmissible in criminal trials