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Anatomy: Central Nervous System
Important terms regarding the central nervous system.
Terms in this set (60)
Outermost layer of the meninges
Layer of the dura mater attached to the bone
Layer of the dura mater covering the brain
Area where the two layers of the dura mater separate and cerebrospinal fluid drains
Between the dura and the bone
Between the dura and the arachnoid mater
Venous blood collects under the dura. Dura remains attached to the skull and brain is crushed under pressure.
Arterial blood collects above the dura. Dura is peeled off of the skull.
Middle layer of the meninges
Highly vasculated and filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Contains trabeculae and villi protruding into sinuses and allows draining into dural blood sinuses.
Inner layer of the meninges. Delicate, clings to the brain, following convolutions.
Ventricles producing cerebrospinal fluid.
Specialized cells found primarily in the third ventricle that produce cerebrospinal fluid.
Blood brain barrier
Endothelial cell layer of capillaries and astrocyte end feet prevent leakage. Highly selective transport mechanisms.
Thalamus and hypothalamus
Midbrain, pons, medulla. Passageway for tracts running between cerebellum and spinal cord.
Divides cerebral hemispheres into right and left sides.
Divides frontal from parietal lobes and sensory cortex from motor cortex
Separates temporal lobe from parietal lobe
Divides occipital and parietal lobes.
Transverse cerebral fissure
Separates cerebral hemispheres from cerebellum
Lobe buried deep in lateral sulcus beneath the temporal lobe
Clusters of cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system.
Primary somatosensory cortex
Areas 1-3. Postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe. Awareness of sensation and ability to localize.
Somatosensory association area
Areas 5,7. Connects with primary somatosensory cortex and integrates sensory input. Posterior to primary somatosensory cortex.
Primary visual cortex
Area 17. Handles info from contralateral retina. Stimulus travels through superior colliculi.
Visual association area
Areas 18, 19. Communicates with primary visual cortex. Item recognition.
Primary auditory area
Area 41. Determine pitch, rhythm, and intensity. Sensation travels through inferior colliculi.
Auditory association area.
Communicates with primary auditory cortex. Sound recognition.
Located on the left hemisphere. Understanding speech or repeating speech. Aphasia leads to impaired interpretation of words and inability to speak.
Responsible for sense of smell. Located deep in temporal lobe along medial surface.
Area 43. Taste.
Primary motor area
Area 4. Located on precentral gyrus. Voluntary movement of skeletal muscles; contains pyramidal cells.
Area 6. Coordinate muscle groups. Initiated by sensory cues.
Areas 45, 44. Left hemisphere. Aphasia leads to impairment of physical speech.
Responsible for cognition, impulse control, and executive functioning.
Interconnect left and right hemispheres so they can act as a whole. Ex. corpus callosum.
Connect different parts of the same hemisphere.
Gray matter within the brain. Includes basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus.
Subcortical motor nuclei. Cooperates with cerebral cortex in coordinating movement and is part of the "extrapyramidal system." Contains caudate nucleus, lentiform nucleus (composed of putamen and globus pallidus).
Two lobes of gray matter lateral to the third ventricle. Gateway to the cerebral cortex - sensory tracts into the brain pass through thalamic nuclei where processing (editing) occurs.
Forms inferolateral walls of the third ventricle and the main visceral control center. Autonomic nervous system: emotion, body temperature, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythm, pituitary gland.
Small group of nuclei at the dorsal portion of diencephalon. Pineal gland signals nighttime sleep.
Cerebral peduncles contain pyramidal motor tracts from motor cortex.
Part of corpora quadrigemina (tectum). Visual reflex.
Part of corpora quadrigemina. Auditory reflex.
Dark area of the midbrain. Concerned with motor control and releases dopamine. Involved in Parkinson's disease.
Bridge the motor cortex and the cerebellum.
Cardiovascular and respiratory center. Contains both sensory and motor neurons.
Smooths, coordinates and fine tunes bodily movements. Helps maintain body posture and equilibrium. Two major hemispheres with three lobes: anterior, posterior, floculonodular.
Separates anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum
Midline. Connects hemispheres of the cerebellum.
White matter within the cerebellum.
Processes emotions and allocates resources. Includes hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, mammilary bodies.
Short-term to long-term memory. Damage can cause Alzheimer's disease. Located at end of fornix.
Reward, fear, inhibition. Is there something I should be afraid of?
Behavior and motivation. Risk v. award. Located above the corpus callosum.
Memory of smell. Connects to olfactory bulbs.