45 terms

Exam 2

Research on the nature of parent-adolescent relationships reveals that:
most adolescents appear to maintain positive, supportive, and mutually respective relationships with parents
Mark is a teenager who generally respects his parents. On which of the following issues, however, is Mark most likely to side with his friends and against his parents?
on how to wear his hair
According to Smetana, adolescents often judge keeping one's room clean and style of dress as ________, whereas parents tend to judge these issues as __________.
personal; conventional
Max tells his friends that his mother is a "real marshmellow" who does whatever he wants and who never enforces the rules she tries to set. If Max's statement is true, his mother is best characterized as :
Which of the following statements is most true of minority families and parenting styles?
because ethnic minorities are more likely to live in dangerous areas, authoritarian parenting may actually be beneficial for these adolescents
Over the course of adolescence, relationships among siblings become more egalitarian but _________ distant and __________ emotionally intense
more; less
What factors would explain the fact that Dorothy and Rose, sisters who are only 1 year apart in age, have different memories of their family life as they were growing up?
nonshared environment
Close to ____ of children in the United States grow up either in abject poverty or in low-income families
Which of the following is NOT a finding of social scientists regarding the effects of divorce on adolescents?
the adverse consequences of divorce for adolescents are directly linked to living in a single-parent household
Adolescents from divorced families frequently display all of the following negative effects, EXCEPT
social rejection as a result of stigma
Which of the following statements about stepfamilies is FALSE
younger adolescents have a harder time adjusting to stepfamilies than older adolescents
When siblings are treated differently by parents, research shows that they are likely to:
get along better because they feel unique
The text states that _______ is/are the most critical influence on adolescents' adjustment.
the quality of their relationships at home
In comparison with teenagers in previous times, teenagers in contemporary societies spend ______ time with their peers ______ with their parents
more; than
All of the following contributed to the rise of age segregation in contemporary society, EXCEPT
decrease in family values
A reason stated in the text to explain why today's youth do not place the same value on education as their parents is that American adolescents:
have become alienated from and unfamiliar with the values of adults
Research studying adolescent friendship networks has found all of the following, EXCEPT
more than half of the adolescents in any given school are members of cliques
All of the following changes typically occur during adolescence, EXCEPT
larger groups are replaced by smaller cliques
Eleanor Maccoby states all of the following reasons that adolescents separate themselves into same-sex cliques, EXCEPT
parents' fears that cross-sex cliques will lead to early sexual activity
The chief determinant of popularity in high school is
social competence
Which of the following is a common finding of recent cyberbullying studies?
adolescents who engage in tranditional bullying often also engage in cyberbullying
Adolescents who use aggression deliberately, known as _______, are much more popular than adolescents who use aggression without planning to, known as _______
instrumental aggression; reactive aggression
Changes in the structure of secondary schools have been linked to broader societal revolutions. All of the following factors have contributed to these changes, EXCEPT
During the 1920's, the ________ was designed to meet the needs of a diverse and growing population of young people.
comprehensive high school
Experts are likely to express all of the following reasons for the failure of school reform, EXCEPT
the explosion of job opportunities in inner-city communities have left many students leaving school to pursue careers
Which of the following statements about classroom environment is true?
Moderate, rather than strict, control in the classroom promotes positive student behavior.
Which has a greater effect on students' scholastic achievement: school size or class size?
school size
Debbie is moving from elementary school into middle school. We would expect her to experience declines in all of the following EXCEPT her:
standardized test scores
Jacquelynne Eccles argues that the difficulty adolescents experience in the transition to junior high school is a result of the:
teachers' beliefs about junior high students
Which of the following statements about tracking is FALSE?
teaching quality is more or less the same in different tracks
According to the text, ______ do bettter in math during elementary school and ______ are more likely to be enrolled in advanced math classes in high school
girls; boys
Under current federal law, children with learning disabilities must be:
mainstreamed whenever possible
According to the textbook, why do private school students academically outperform students at public schools?
because of the characteristics of the students who attend private schools
All of the following are factors associated with higher performance of students in Catholic schools relative to other schools, EXCEPT
more effective use of academic tracking
Research has shown that teachers tend to favor high-achieving students by providing extra cues for answers and more positive nonverbal behaviors than for lower-achieving students. Such evidence provides support for the notion that teachers' expectations may contribute to:
the self-fulfilling prophecy
What is the paradox of dropping out of school?
students who drop out are typically the ones who are most harmed by doing so..
American high school students spend fewer than ____ hours per week on homework, while Japanese high school students average closer to ____
5; 5 hours per day
Adolescents are least likely to seek out ____ webt sites on the internet
Which of the following in NOT a common message that the media conveys about sex?
unprotected sex can have serious consequences
One tremendous problem in interpreting studies of media use and adolescent development is that:
it is extremely difficult to disentangle cause and effect
Which of the following is true of most adolescents' jobs?
adolescents are rarely required to use skills taught in school
Overall, the greatest number of working high school students are employed in:
restaurants and retail establishments
In contrast to adolescents in the United States, adolescents in Europe:
are more likely to drop out of school early to take on a full-time job
Research on violent video games has shown
in contract to 10 years ago, girls now play violent video games as frequently as boys do
All of the following have been found to be benefits of playing sports as an adolescent, EXCEPT
starting training while young helps protect adolescents from injuries later