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which philosopher would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism

broad concepts

in order to understand and learn psychology's lessons, you will find it most helpful to associate facts and research findings with:

recall the correct answer to each question before reading the alternative answers

in answering multiple choice test items, smart test takers are best advised to

behavior and mental processes

contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

thought processes and brain functions

cognitive neuroscience studies the interaction of

potential for healthy growth

humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's

cognitive prespective; psychoanalitic prespecive

john watson is to edward titchner as___________is to_________


socrates and plato affirmed the importance of


professor shale contends that parents and children have similar levals of intelligence largely because they share common genes. his idea is best described as a(n)

operational definition

in a written report of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with a(n)

cricical thinking

a questoning atitude regarding psychologists assumptions and hidden values best illistrates

skepticism and humility

two basic characteristics of the scientific attitude are


alicia insists that dr. phillips theory of aggression be checked against the observable evidence she is demonstrating the scientific attitude of

the same underlying process gudes all people from all cultures

in considering the effects of culture on behavior, psychologists recognize that

naturalistic observation; experimentation

animal protection organizations are most likely to support the use of animals in research involving ___________than research involving _____________--

the hindsight bias

the scientific attitude of humility is most likely to be undermined by

the hindsight bias

giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposing result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of

far outweighed by gender similarities

psychological differences between the genders are

random sampling

every twenty fith person who ordered a subscription to a weekly news magazine was contacted by the market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazines contents. the researchers were most clearly employing a technique known as


in a study of factors that might affect memory, research participants were assigned to drink an alcholic or nonalcoholic bevrage. those who drank the nonalcoholic bevrage paricipated in the __________- conditon

illusory correlations

A tendency to notice and remember instances in which our premonitions of disaster are subsequently followed by harmful events is most likely to contribute to:

standard devation ; varation

The ________ is a measure of ________.

higher levels of popularity among ones peers is accociated with greater physical height in children

A correlation of +0.70 between children's physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates that:

random assignment

Researchers control factors that might influence a dependent variable by means of:

the case study

Which research method runs the greatest risk of collecting evidence that may be unrepresentative of what is generally true?

independent variable

In an experimental study of the effects of dieting on weight loss, dieting would be the:

mean; skewed

The ________ can be a particularly misleading indication of what is average for a ________ distribution of scores.

the samples are small and the standard deviations of the samples are large

Differences between two samples are least likely to be statistically significant if:

away from; toward

An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.

the myelin sheath

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is most directly associated with the degeneration of:

raises; raises

The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine ________ blood pressure and _______ blood sugar levels.

sensory and motor neurons

The peripheral nervous system consists of:

bladder contractions

The autonomic nervous system most directly controls:

left cerebral hemisphere

Research with split-brain patients led Michael Gazzaniga to conclude that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors.


Brain scans indicate that well-practiced pianists have a larger-than-usual auditory cortex area that encodes piano sounds. This best illustrates:


In order to monitor electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n):

wernicke's area

In which of the following parts of the brain would a lesion most likely result in aphasia?


Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?

faternal twins who were raised apart

Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are:

religious beliefs

Adopted children are especially likely to have similar ________ if raised in the same home.

behavior geneticits

Assessment of the extent to which variations in infant temperatures are inborn would be of most direct interest to:


Heritability refers to the extent to which trait variations among individuals are attributable to their differing:

molecular genetics

Identifying some of the specific genes that contribute to alcoholism would be of most direct interest to:

genetic predispositions

Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to:

more likely to engage in risky sexual practices and more likely to die in auto crashes

Compared to their female classmates, college-age men are:

cultural pracitices

Critics of evolutionary psychology are particularly likely to emphasize that gender differences in mate preferences are byproducts of:

prental enviorments

Identical twins who have separate placentas are somewhat less similar than identical twins who share a placenta. This best illustrates the influence of ________ on development.

freudian psychologists

.The tendency to exaggerate the impact of parents' child-rearing practices on children's personality has been most characteristic of:

smoking prefrences on friendship choices

Teens who smoke typically have friends who smoke. In order to avoid overestimating the impact of peer pressure on teens' smoking habits, it would make the most sense to consider the impact of:


The dramatic increase in Americans' premarital sexual activity over the past half-century best illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by:


Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with:

gene Y

A single ________ on the ________ chromosome plays a crucial role in the prenatal development of the testes.

gender schema theory

Because he believes that crying is a feminine trait, 14-year-old George has difficulty admitting that a movie makes him tearful. His experience best illustrates dynamics highlighted by:

begins later in life

As compared to the production of egg cells, sperm cell production:


The heart begins to beat during the ________ period of prenatal development.


For the unborn children of mothers who smoke heavily, nicotine is a(n):

body odors

By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers' and strangers':





top down processing


subliminal stimulation


webers law


change blindness


color constancy




cones enable color vision, are highly concentrated, have a higer absloute threshold for brightness


corndea, pupil, lense, retina




cones; higher




green; opponent-process


amplitude; loudness


low-pitched sounds


high-pitched sounds


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