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FLUIDS AND TRANSPORTATION 21-1

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Arteries
carry blood away from the heart
Arterioles
The smallest arterial branches
Capillaries
where diffusion occurs between blood and interstitial fluid
Venules
collect blood from capillary beds, are the smallest venous vessels.
Veins
Return blood to the heart
3 layers of arteries and veins
Tunica Intima, Tunica Media, and Tunica externa
Tunica Intima
innermost layer of a blood vessel, Includes the endothelial lining and an underlying layer of connective tissue containing a variable number of elastic fiber.
Internal Elastic Membrane
thick layer of elastic fibers in the tunica intima
Tunica Media
middle layer of blood vessels, contains concentric sheets of smooth muscles tissue in a framework of loose connective tissue.
Tunica Externa
outermost layer of blood vessel, is a connective tissue sheath. In arteries, this layer contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers.
How to arteries and veins typically service the same region?
They run side by side.
Difference between arteries and veins
Walls of arteries are thicker than veins, Arteries are thick and strong, they retain their circular shape, cut veins tend to collapse, and endothelial lining of an artery cannot contract.
Vasoconstriction
when arterial smooth muscles contract, thereby constricting the artery
Vasodilation
Relaxation of arterial smooth muscles increases the diameter of the lumen in this process.
Vaso constriction and vasodilation affect...
The afterload on the heart, peripheral blood pressure, and capillary blood flow.
Elastic arteries
or conducting arteries, are large vessels with diameters up to 2.5 cm. They transport large columes of blood AWAY from the heart.
Examples of elastic arteries
Pulmonary trunk, aorta, pulmonary arterie, common carotid arterie, subclavian arteries, and common iliac arteries
Muscular Arteries
also known as medium sized arteries, or distribution arteries, distribute blood to the body's skeletal muscles and internal organs.
Aterioles
Very small, have a poorly defined tunica externa, and the tunica media in the larger arterioles consists of one or two layers of smooth muslce cells.
Aneurysm
bulge in the weakened wall of an artery
Capillaries
Permeate most tissues, form intricate networks that surround muscle fibers, radiate through connective tissues, and branch beneath the basal laminae of epithelia. They are the only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrouding interstial fluids.
A typical capillary consist of what
Endothelial tube inside a delicate basal lamina
Continuous Capillary
the endothelium is a complete lining. They are located in all tissues except epithelia and cartilage and they permit the diffusion of water, small solutes, and lipid-solubel materials into the surrounding interstitial fluid, but prevent the loss of blood cells and plasma proteins.
Fenestrated capillaries
Contain windows, or pores that penetrate the endothelial lining. The pores permit rapid exchange of water and solutes as large as small peptides between plasma and interstitial fluid.
Examples of fenestrated capillaries
Choroid plexus of the brain and blood vessels in a cariety of endocrine organs, such as the hypothalamus and the pituitary, pineal, and thyroid gland
Sinusoids
also called sinusoidal capillaries, resemble fenestrated capillaries that are flattened and irregulary shaped.
Capillary bed
or capillary plexus, interconnected network
Collaterals
multiple arteries, enter the region and fuse before giving rise to arterioles.
Arterial anastomosis
joining of blood vessels, the fusion of two collaterial arteries that supply a capillary bed
Arteriovenous anastomoses
direct connections between arterioles and venules
Angiogenesis
is the formation of new blood vessels under the direction of vascular endothelial growth factor
Vasomotion
The cycling of contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles that changed blood flow through capillary beds
Medium sized veins
range from 2-9 mm in diameter. In these veins the tunica media is thin and contains relatively few smooth muscle cells.
Large veins
Include the superior and inferior venae cavae and their tributaries within the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities.
Valves
folds of the tunica intima, that project from the vessel wall and point in the direction of blood flow.
What percent does the heart, arteries, and capillaries in the pulmonary and systemic circuits normally contain?
30-35% of blood volume.
What percent of blood volume does the venous system usually contain?
65-70% about 3.5 liters.
1/3 of circulating venous blood is circulating in what?
Liver, bone marrow and skin
Capacitance vessels
veins which expand easily
Venoconstriction
reduces the amount of blood within the venous system, thereby increasing the volume withing the arterial system and capillaries.
Venous reserve
the amount of blood that can be shifted from veins in the liver, skin, and lungs to the general circulation. It is normally about 20% of total blood volume.