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Arts and Humanities
14 - World War II (Essentials)
Terms in this set (38)
The alliance of Nazi Germany, Mussolini's Italy, and Japan during World War II.
America First Committee
Group that included many prominent Americans in the 1930s which advocated for isolationism.
Supreme allied commander in Europe during World War II. He later became president during the 1950s.
Allied commander in the South Pacific during World War II. He was forced to surrender the Philippines at the start of the war, but led the successful island hopping campaign and eventually accepted the Japanese surrender and was the military governor of occupied Japan.
American president at the end of World War II. He became president in 1945 when Roosevelt died and made the decision to use the atomic bomb.
Scientist who led the Manhattan Project. He is remembered as the Father of the Nuclear Bomb.
Rosie the Riveter
Character who represented all the working women during World War II. In the most famous image of her, she declares "We Can Do It!"
A. Philip Randolph
African American leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union. He convinced President Franklin Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 to end discrimination in industries that fulfilled government contracts.
Unit of African American fighter pilots during World War II.
442nd Regimental Combat Team
Army unit made up of Japanese Americans during World War II. They served with distinction despite the internment of their family members back home and are the most decorated military unit in American history.
Washington Naval Conference
Meeting of nine world powers in 1921 and 1922 in which they agreed to limit the size of their navies.
Battle of Britain
Air war between Germany and Great Britain in 1940. Hitler tried to force the British to sue for peace by bombing cities.
Attack on Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941. The event that propelled the United States into World War II.
Battle of Stalingrad
One of the turning point battles of World War II. German forces had attacked deep into the Soviet Union before they were turned back here during the winter of 1942.
June 6, 1944. The landing of allied forces at Normandy, France. It was a turning point in the war in Europe.
Hitler's attempt to murder all Jews in Europe. The genocide resulted in 12 million deaths.
Battle of Midway
Turning point battle in the Pacific in 1942. The Americans d sunk four Japanese aircraft carries. After the battle, the Japanese were unable to rebuild their fleet or train replacement pilots.
The end of World War II when Japan surrendered.
Zoot Suit Riots
Violent conflict between White sailors on leave in Los Angeles and young Hispanic men. The media and local leaders blamed the unrest on the Hispanics.
A policy of not being involved in international affairs or joining in treaties with other nations.
Government system in which one person maintains total control and that leader and the country are synonymous. Thus, citizens declare loyalty to the leader, rather than the nation.
Attempting to avoid a conflict by giving someone what they want.
Limiting the amount of a certain product that can be purchased to make people reduce use and therefore limit demand. For example, during World War II, people could only purchase gasoline on certain days of the week.
Government savings bonds sold during World War II in order to raise money for the war effort. Everyone, including children and students were encouraged to save their money to purchase these.
Personal gardens people grew during World War II to support the war effort. By growing their own food, people reduced demand on commercially produced food.
Arsenal of Democracy
Idea promoted by President Franklin Roosevelt that the United States would produce the material the allies needed to win the war, including ships, tanks, aircraft, bullets, bombs, etc.
Secret project during World War II to develop a nuclear bomb.
A date which will live in infamy
Famous line from President Franklin Roosevelt's war message to Congress the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Good Neighbor Policy
President Franklin Roosevelt's foreign policy during the 1930s with regards to Latin America. He withdrew the military and renounced intervention, reversing Theodore Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
Agreement between Hitler and the United Kingdom in 1938. Hitler promised not to invade his neighbors in exchange for British Prime Minister Chamberlain's agreement to let Hitler control the Sudetenland. Chamberlain believed the agreement would preserve peace. It actually convinced Hitler that the British would not stop his expansionist plans.
American policy toward Japanese expansion in China in the 1930s. The United States refused to recognize the legality of the Japanese occupation.
Set of laws passed by Congress in the second half of the 1930s that prohibited President Roosevelt from actively supporting any side during World War II.
Cash and Carry
American policy in which the United Kingdom could purchase war materials so long as they paid in full and transported the materials on British ships. It was a first step toward joining the war.
American policy starting in early 1941 to provide war material to the United Kingdom. Under the policy, the British did not have to pay for what they needed up front, thus ending the Cash and Carry policy.
Agreement between President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom in August 1941 before the United States joined World War II. It outlined the Anglo-American war goals of preserving democracy and self-determination.
Executive Order 8802
An executive order issued by Franklin Roosevelt during World War II that forbid discrimination in industries that fulfilled government contracts.
Executive Order 9066
Executive order signed by Franklin Roosevelt in 1942 that authorized the internment of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast.
Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II was constitutional. Most people believe it was a failure of the Court to uphold justice.
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