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Biology 1220 Exam 3 Study Guide
Terms in this set (109)
How long ago did plants move onto land?
488 million years ago
What are the benefits of plants moving onto land?
More carbon dioxide
What are the challenges of plants moving onto land?
Scarcity of water
Lack of structural support
What do shoots obtain from the air?
Light and carbon dioxide
What are the two parts of the shoot?
Stems and leaves
In addition to cellulose, what do stems contain in their cell walls?
What part of leaves take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen?
What are leaves covered by in order to prevent desiccation?
What are obtained from the soil by roots?
Water and inorganic nutrients
What are roots symbiotically associated with?
Where are apical meristems located?
At the tips of shoots and roots
What are apical meristems?
Regions of cell division that enable the plant to continually grow upward into the air or downward into the soil
What are vascular tissues?
Conducting tubes that run throughout the shoots and roots, connecting them internally
What is xylem?
Part of the vascular tissue system that transports water and minerals up from the roots
What is phloem?
Part of the vascular tissue system that transports photosynthates (sugars) from the leaves to the rest of the plants
What do all plants undergo?
An alternation of generations sexual life cycle
Plants alternate between two multicellular generations, what are they?
Sporophyte - diploid generation
Gametophyte - haploid generation
Diagram of Alternation of Generations
Where are sporophytes produced and protected?
What is the wall that surrounds spore cells composed of?
What are female gametangia called? And what do they produce?
Archegonia. They produce female gametes (eggs)
What are male gametangia called? And what do they produce?
Anteridia. They produce male gametes (sperm)
Where does fertilization occur?
In the archegonia
Where do zygotes and embryonic sporophytes develop?
What are some examples of additional reproductive adaptations?
Is the gametophyte generation dominant or non dominant in NONVASCULAR PLANTS? Why?
Dominant. They are larger and photosynthetic
Is the sporophyte generation more or less prominent in NONVASCULAR PLANTS? Why?
Less prominent. They are smaller and not photosynthetic and therefore dependent on the gametophyte
What do all nonvascular plants possess?
How do male gametes travel in nonvascular plants?
Through water (raindrops or dew)
What is the common name of hepaticophyta?
Do liverworts have stomata?
No, instead they have simple pores that are always open
What is the common name of Anthocerophyta?
Do hornworts have stomata?
Yes, they were the first plant group to possess stomata
What is the common name for Bryophyta?
What is the largest group of nonvascular plants?
What is an important global reservoir of atmospheric carbon?
Peat mosses (sphagnum)
Moss Life Cycle
What generation is dominant in seedless vascular plants? Why?
The sporophyte generation is dominant. They are larger and photosynthetic
What do all seedless vascular plants possess?
Vascular tissue, shoots, roots, apical meristems, and lignin
During what period did seedless vascular plants form Earth's first forests?
What are the fossilized remains of seedless vascular plants?
Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
What is the common name for Lycophyta?
Where are sporangia located within club mosses?
Sporangia are located within the strobili
What is the common name of Psilotophyta?
Where are sporangia located within whisk ferns?
Sporangia are located within synangia
What is the common name of Sphenophyta?
Where are sporangia located within horsetails?
Sporangia are located within strobili
What is the common name of Pteridophyta?
What is the largest group of seedless vascular plants?
Where are sporangia located within ferns?
Sporangia are located within sori
Fern Life Cycle
How does the female sporangium produce a single sporocyte?
The sporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce how many spores?
How many of the spores produced by meiosis degenerate?
What does the spore undergo to become female gametophyte?
Where does the female gametophyte develop?
What does the female gametophyte possess that produces an egg?
What is the process that the archegonium undergoes to produce an egg?
Within the sporangium, spores under go mitosis how many times to produce MALE gametophytes?
What do male gametophytes not contain?
What is the four-celled male gametophyte called?
What is a pollen grain made up of?
Three non-reproductive cells and one sperm cell
Pollen grains are released from the sporangium and dispersed by what method?
What are pollen grain cells surrounded by to prevent dessiccation?
Where does fertilization occur and the zygote form?
Within the female gametophyte's archegonium
What does the female gametophyte serve as a source of for the embryo?
What are the advantages of seed plants no longer being constrained by water for reproduction?
Much greater dispersal
Allows seed plants to reach much larger sizes
What does gymnosperm mean?
What does it mean to have a naked seed?
Ovules within strobili are not enclosed
What is the largest gymnosperm group?
What does Coniferophyta contain?
Pines, firs, cypresses, junipers, and redwoods
When were cycadophyta prominent?
During the mesozoic era
Where can Gnetophyta be found?
Deserts, shrub lands, rainforests
What does angiosperm mean?
Clothed or covered seed
What is the largest plant group?
Anthophyta (flowering plants outnumber all other plant groups combined)
What do angiosperms possess in place of strobili?
What is the female reproductive flower structure and what does it consist of?
Consists of: stigma, style and ovary
What does the stigma do?
Receives pollen grains
What does the style do?
Allows passage of pollen grains to ovary
What does the ovary contain?
What is the male reproductive flower structure and what does it consist of?
Consists of: Anther and Filament
What does the anther do?
Produces pollen grains
What does the filament do?
Holds the anther upright
What is the non-reproductive flower structure and what does it consist of?
Consists of: Corolla and Calyx
What does the Corolla do?
What does the calyx do?
Encloses the flower prior to blooming
What do flowers enable instead of relying on the chance of wind pollination?
Diagram of a flower
What do fruits function in?
What are the two major groups within anthophyta?
Monocots and Eudicots
What fraction of angiosperms are monocots?
What fraction of angiosperms are eudicots?
What are monocots and eudicots named for?
The number of cotyledons they possess
How many cotyledon(s) do monocots possess?
How many cotyledon(s) do eudicots possess?
How many flower structures do Eudicots have?
Multiples of 4 or 5 (meaning they'll have 4, 5, 8, 10 etc flowers)
How many flower structures do Monocots have?
Multiples of 3 (meaning they'll have 3, 6, 9 etc flowers)
What kind of root system do Monocots have?
Fibrous root system
What kind of root system do Eudicots have?
Tap root system
Do Monocots undergo secondary growth?
What is the arrangement of vascular tissue in the roots in Monocots?
What is the arrangement of vascular tissue in the roots in Eudicots?
What is the arrangement of vascular tissue in the stems of Monocots?
Vascular bundles scattered
What is the arrangement of vascular tissue in the stems of Eudicots?
Vascular bundles in a ring
What is the arrangement of vascular tissue in the leaves of Monocots?
What is the arrangement of vascular tissue in the leaves of Eudicots?
Reticulate (branching) venation
What are some examples of Monocots?
Orchids and Grasses
What are some examples of Eudicots?
Sunflowers, Legumes, Roses and Cacti
What do humans use seed plants for?
Food, building material, fuel, paper, clothing, medicine
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