64 terms

AP Psychology - Abnormal Psychology

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somatic symptom disorders
psychological problems in which there are symptoms of a physical disorder without a physical cause
biopsychosocial model
a view of mental disorders as caused by a combination of interacting biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
neurobiological model
a modern name for the medical model, in which psychological disorders are seen as reflecting disturbances in the anatomy and chemistry of the brain and in other biological processes
anxiety disorder
a condition in which intense feelings of apprehension are long-standing and disruptive
phobia
an anxiety disorder involving strong, irrational fear of an object or situation that does not objectively justify such a reaction
specific phobia
an anxiety disorder involving fear and avoidance of heights, animals, and other specific stimuli and situations
post-traumatic stress disorder
a pattern of adverse reactions following a traumatic and threatening event; not an anxiety disorder
social phobia
an anxiety disorder involving strong, irrational fears relating to social situations
agoraphobia
an anxiety disorder involving strong fear of being alone or away from the security of home
generalized anxiety disorder
a condition that involves relatively mild but long-lasting anxiety that is focused on any particular object or situation;
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder involving sudden panic attacks
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
a disorder involving repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain rituals; not considered an anxiety disorder
panic attacks
attacks marked by intense heart palpitations, pressure or pain in the chest, dizziness or unsteadiness, sweating, and a feeling of faintness
obsessions
persistent, upsetting, and unwanted thoughts
compulsions
ritualistic, repetitive behaviors
functional neurological disorder (conversion disorder)
a somatic symptom disorder in which a person displays blindness, deafness, or other symptoms of sensory or motor failure without a physical cause
Illness Anxiety Disorder (hypochondriasis)
a somatic symptom disorder involving strong, unjustified fear of physical illness
somatic symptom disorder
disorder in which there are numerous physical complaints without verifiable physical illness; specific symptoms fall into 4 categories (GI, neurological, sexual and pain)
dissociative disorders
rare conditions that involve sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person's memory, consciousness, or identity
dissociative fugue
a dissociative disorder involving sudden loss of memory and the assumption of a new identity in a new locale usually due to trauma
dissociative amnesia
a dissociative disorder marked by a sudden loss of memory due to psychological causes
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a dissociative disorder in which a person reports having more than one identity; also called multiple personality disorder
mood disorder
conditions in which a person experiences extreme moods, such as depression or mania; also called affective disorder
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks or months
delusions
false beliefs, such as those experienced by people suffering from schizophrenia or extreme depression
mania
an elated, very active emotional state
bipolar I disorder
a mood disorder in which a person alternates between deep depression and mania; also called manic depression
bipolar II disorder
a mood disorder in which a person alternates between major depressive episodes and hypomania episodes
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
during months of shorter daylight, patients experience severe depression, accompanied by irritability and excessive sleeping
schizophrenia
a severe and disabling pattern of disturbed thinking emotion, perception, and behavior
neologisms
"new words" that have meaning only to the person speaking them
loose associations
the tendency for one thought to be logically unconnected, or slightly related, to the next
clang associations
associations based on double meanings or on the way words sound
hallucinations
a symptom of disorder in which people perceive voices or other stimuli when there are no stimuli present
positive symptoms
schizophrenic symptoms such as disorganized thoughts, hallucinations, and delusions
negative symptoms
schizophrenic symptoms such as absence of pleasure, lack of speech, and flat effect
paranoid personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by suspiciousness and distrust of others, all of whom are assumed to be hostile
schizoid personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by detachment from social relationships; restricted range of emotion
schizotypal personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by detachment from, and great discomfort in, social relationships; odd perceptions, thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors
dependent personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by helplessness; excessive need to be taken care of; submissive and clinging behavior; difficulty in making decisions
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and control
avoidant personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by inhibition in social situations; feelings of inadequacy; oversensitivity to criticism
histrionic personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
narcissistic personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by exaggerated ideas of self-importance and achievements; preoccupation with fantasies of success; arrogance
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by shameless disregard for, and violation of, other people's rights
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
patients diagnosed with this disorder are impulsive and unable to concentrate on an activity as well as other children their age can
substance-related disorders
the use of psychoactive drugs for months or years in ways that harm the user or others
Martin Seligman
an American psychologist and author of self-help books. His theory of "learned helplessness" is widely respected among scientific psychologists.[1] He is the director of the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania
Diathesis-stress approach
Disorders are a result of predisposed, bioloogical factors triggered by the environment.
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which an irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves
Autism Spectrum Disorder
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors
catatonia
a pattern of extreme psychomotor symptoms, found in some forms of schizophrenia, which may include catatonic stupor, rigidity, or posturing
delusions of grandeur
A false belief that one is a famous person or a powerful or important person who has some great knowledge, ability, or authority.
delusions of persecution
the belief that people are out to get you
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
lists symptoms of disorders determined by observable details
Diathesis Stress Model
looks at the predisposition of a person to determine if they may be likely to experience a mental disorder. Mental disorders then often triggered by stress.
dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia
idea that schizophrenia results from excess activity at dopamine synapses in certain brain areas
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Rosenhan Study
study in which healthy individuals were admitted into mental hospitals after saying they were hearing voices. Once in, they acted normally and still were not labeled as impostors. shows danger of diagnostic labeling.
Serotonin
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood. Low levels associated with depression.
substance use disorder
continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk
tardive dyskinesia
A side effect of long-term use of traditional antipsychotic drugs causing the person to have uncontrollable facial tics, grimaces, and other involuntary movements of the lips, jaw, and tongue.
waxy flexibility
maintenance of posture or position over time even when it is awkward or uncomfortable
word salad
jumble of incoherent speech as sometimes heard in schizophrenia
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