sociology exam

modernization theory identifies what as the greatest barrier to economic development?
a majority of the worlds people live in ____ income nations?
(T/F) The text states that the world's richest person has about as much wealth as the world's forty-seven poorest countires.
People in New Zealand, Japan, and Canada are all living in:
high income countries
Around the world, about how many people suffer from chronic hunger?
a billion
Dependency theory differs from modernization theory by:
explaining global inequality in terms of the exploitation of poor countries by rich countries.
The term "absolute poverty" refers to:
a lack of resources that is life-threatening
Compared to poverty in the United States, poverty in low-income nations is:
more widespread and severe.
"Pink-collar" work refers to what type of jobs?
administrative support
What is the best reason to see women as a minority in the United States?
In our society, there is an economic disadvantage for being a woman
What refers to social organization in which males dominate females?
(T/F) Intersection theory looks at how the interplay of class, race, and gender effects patterns of social inequality.
The concept "comparable worth" refers to the idea that:
women should receive the same pay as men for work that is equally important.
What term refers to an invisible, yet real, barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positions?
glass ceiling
Over the last century, What has been a cause of the rising share of women in the US paid labor force?
the rising divorce rate
What factor accounts for the largest share of difference in the earnings of working women and men in the United States?
differences in the type of work men and women do
(T/F) In 2006, U.S. women earned 78 cents for every one dollar earned by men.
While race refers to ______________ considered important by a society, ethnicity refers to _____________.
biological traits; cultural traits
While prejudice is a matter of ____________, discrimination is a matter of ___________.
attitudes; action
(T/F) All people in a minority category are socially disadvantaged.
Institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that:
bias is built into the operation of society's institutions
The adoption of the English language by Mexican immigrants to the United States is an example of:
Based on scapegoat theory, you would conclude that prejudice is caused by
frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged
A minority is defined as a category of people who are:
different in some visible way and also socially disadvantaged.
(T/F) WASPs have been the dominant category of the U.S. population throughout most of this nation's history.
(T/F) Assimilation refers to changing cultural traditions; miscegenation refers to reproduction by partners of different racial categories
What term refers to the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another?
As a social institution, politics refers to:
the distribution of power and societal decision making
(T/F) Charismatic authority is one expression of a special individual's personality.
The Industrial Revolution moved ahead more quickly after the discovery and development of ____________ as an early, new source of energy.
the steam engine.
Over the course of human history, changes in _____________ have brought the greatest changes to the economy.
productive technology
(T/F) Most people in the United States strongly identify with one or the other major political party.
The postindustrial economy is defined by:
computer technology
Compared with socialist economic systems, capitalist economic systems are generally:
less equal in terms of income.
A trend over the course of the last century in high-income nations such as the United States is that families have become:
more egalitarian with regard to gender.
Religion is a social institution that is best defined as involving:
beliefs and practices concerning what is sacred.
Sociological analysis of religion is concerned with:
patterns of religious activity and their effect on society.
(T/F) How a researcher operationalizes the concept of "religiosity" affects the share of people in the United States who claim to be religious
The family is a social institution that is found in:
Every human society
(T/F) One reason for today's high divorce rate in the United States is that women are more economically dependent on men
In the United States, family violence is:
a serious, often criminal problem.
The high cost of college means that a crucial factor affecting access to higher education in the United States is:
family income
What is the leading cause of death in the United States today?
heart disease
From a social-conflict point of view, capitalism fails to support human health because:
quality of health care depends on income.
According to the social-conflict approach, schooling in the United States:
transforms social privilege into personal merit.
The text explains that "coronary-prone behavior" is a fairly close match with our culture's definition of:
Centuries ago in Europe, ___________ was a leading cause of death, today ___________ is a leading cause of death
infectious disease; chronic illness
_____________ is the concept used to describe changes in social patterns brought on by the Industrial Revolution.
Durkheim's greatest concern about modern societies was the increase in:
Resource mobilization theory states that social movements will involve people who
have sufficient resources to launch and sustain them.
The stage of a social movement called "coalescence" refers to
the movement defining itself and "going public."
(T/F) Social movements always form among the people who are the most disadvantaged.
(T/F) Social change always means progress- almost all evidence suggests that life is getting better.
Social movements are defined as:
organized activities that encourage or discourage change
Political economy theory claims that social movements arise within capitalist societies:
because the capitalist economic system fails to meet the needs of the majority.
Sociologists explain that social change:
is both intentional and unplanned.