Functions of the skeletal system include all of the following, except
The humerus is an example of a(n) _______ bone.
The ankle bones are examples of ______ bones.
The sternum is an example of a(n) _______ bone.
The vertebrae are examples of _______ bones.
Mature bone cells are called
Cells that synthesize the organic components of the bone matrix are called
Large, multinucleated cells that can dissolve the bony matrix are called
the bony matrix is dissolved to release the stored minerals
In the process of osteolysis
Bone contains all of the following, except
The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called
The central canal of an osteon contains
The tiny plates of bone material found in spongy bone are called
The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from a limited range of directions is _____ bone.
The medullary cavity of bones contains
The shaft of a long bone is called the
The lining of the marrow cavity is called the
deposition of calcium salts within a tissue
Calcification refers to the
4, 2, 1, 3
The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification:
1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized. 2. Osteoblasts cluster together to form an ossification center. 3. Small struts of bone called spicules radiate out from the ossification centers to join with neighboring spicules. 4. Osteoblasts differentiate within a connective tissue at the site of arterioles.
Which of the following is NOT formed by intramembranous ossification?
a cartilage model
Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of
3, 1, 5, 4, 2
The following are major steps in the process of endochondral ossification:
1. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium. 2. Osteoclasts create a marrow cavity. 3. Chondrocytes enlarge and calcify. 4. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone. 5. The perichondrium is converted into a periosteum and the inner layer produces bone.
in the center of the epiphyses
Secondary ossification centers occur
When production of sex hormones increase, bone growth
The most abundant mineral in the human body is
Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone
is released in larger concentrations earlier in life
Osteoclast-activating factor does all of the following, except that it
decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood
The hormone calcitonin functions to
stimulates osteoblast activity
Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways, except it
Excess growth hormone prior to puberty would result in
Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except
absorption and transport of calcium and phosphate ions
Vitamin D is necessary for
result in thin and brittle bones
A lack of exercise would
the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts
When stress is applied to a bone,
A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function is
The following are steps in the process of bone repair
_______ fractures are completely internal; they do not break through the skin.
A fracture where the shaft of one bone is broken and the adjacent bone is bent is best described as a ______ fracture.
Bones that develop within tendons are called ______ bones.
Small, flat, oddly shaped bones found between some of the large flat bones of the skull are called _____ bones.
A large rough projection of a bone (found only on the femur) is termed a
A small round projection of a bone is termed a
The smooth, rounded or oval articular process of a bone is termed a
A deep depression on a bone is termed a
A canal leading through the matrix of a bone is termed a
The basic functional units of mature compact bone are called
The deposition of calcium slats in tissues other than bone is referred to as
A child with rickets would have
________ bones develop inside the tendons and are most commonly located near joints at the knees, the hands, and the feet.
The patella is an example of a(n) ______ bone.
If a human femur is found lying in a field, a pathologist can determine the age, sex, and general appearance of the individual as a result of studying which part of the bone?
The innermost part of compact bone is known as the
both A and C
Which of the following is a characteristic of bone?
________ accounts for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.
The ________ interactions allow bones to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering.
The most abundant cell types found in the bone are
_______ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are
10 to 15
The femur can withstand _______ times the body weight without breaking.
_________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.
_________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and makes it easier for muscles to move the bones.
Intramembranous ossification begins with the ________ cells.
step 4, growth and marrow cavity creation
In which step of endochondral ossification does remodeling of the bone occur?
What is the primary source of calcitriol in the body?
The most abundant mineral in the body is
Bone is composed of ________ percent calcium.
While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her femur. What would you expect to see as part of her nursing assessment several hours after the fall?
The lacunae of bone contain
the bones would be more flexible
How would increasing the proportion of organic molecules to inorganic components in the bony matrix affect the physical characteristics of bone?
are lined up in the same direction
In compact bone, the osteons
are organized along stress lines
The trabeculae of spongy bone
If the rate of ostelysis exceeds osteogenesis, bones will
bones grow wider
During appositional growth
When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones
elevated levels of sex hormones
Premature closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by
a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year
In normal adult bones,
osteoclast activity when calcitonin is absent
Which is greater? (Osteoclast activity)
blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is increased
Which is greater? (Blood calcium levels)
causes a gradual reduction in bone mass
The condition known as osteopenia
Degenerative changes in a joint can be the result of all of the following, except
decreased muscle response
Bill develops a benign tumor of the parathyroid glands, which causes the level of parathyroid hormone in his blood to be higher than normal. Which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition?
Marry is 50 years old. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show greater than normal demineralization. After reviewing the test results, her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone will she prescribe for her patient?
long bones have reached their adult length
When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone
Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone would produce changes in the bone similar to those associated with