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Social and Communication Bases Of Early Language and Speech, 2.2
Terms in this set (18)
Repetition promotes learning
•Caregiver behavior leads to changes in the infant
•Infant behavior leads to changes in the caregiver
Both partners have specific roles & affect the interaction
Eye gaze is a critical component of these early protoconversations
Early infant-caregiver interactions:
•The interactions themselves change over time
•Quality of these interactions influences infant-caregivers bonding
What are some aspects of socialiazation and early communication at 6 months?
Perlocutionary Stage (birth to 8 months)
•Illocutionary Stage (8 to 12 months)
•Locutionary Stage (12+ months)
WHat are the different phases of developmental intentionality?
Birth to 8 months
•Form (phonologic) - vegetative, cooing, quasi-resonant nuclei, babbling (fully resonant nuclei)
•Communication is limited to behaviors that sustain an interaction
What is the prelocutionary stage of developement?
when caregivers attribute intent to the child's actions
What is the preintentional stage?
8 to 12 months
•Form (phonologic) - reduplicated & variegated babbling, phonetically consistent forms, first words
•Intentions include requesting objects and actions, refusing, commenting, engaging in communicative games
What is the illocutionary stage?
Infant expresses his/her intents & goals with gestures and vocalizations
What is the intentional stage?
Understands 3 to 50 words
•Begins to relate symbols and objects
•Turns head in response to hearing name
•Understands simple commands
•Gestures and/or vocalizes to indicate wants and needs
•PCF's or first true word may emerge
Aspects of the illocutionary stage of the content (semantic)
Shouts or coughs to attract attention
•Protests by pushing undesired objects away
•Participates in pat-a-cake and peek-a-boo
•Changes behavior in response to the emotional reactions of others
•Imitates novel sounds or actions
Aspects of the illocutionary stage of use (Pragmatics)
requesting objects, participation, or actions
What are Protoimperatives?
pointing or showing to maintain joint (shared) attention
What are Protodeclaratives?
•Form (phonologic) - lots of unintelligible speech, imitates/attempts to mimic words
•Same intents are expressed with words rather than through preverbal means (i.e., gestures, eye contact, facial expressions)
•The first meaningful word appears
What is the locutionary stage of developement?
Average receptive vocabulary of 200 words or more by 18 months
•Words are understood outside of routine games
•Points to familiar or desired objects
•Follows simple one-step commands
•First true words emerge (if not earlier)
•Average expressive (spoken) vocabulary of 50 -100 words by 18 months
•Semantic roles expressed in one-word speech include: agent, action, object, location, possession, rejection, disappearance, nonexistence, denial
•Can answer the question "what's this?"
What are some content (semantics) Of illocutionary stage?
Frequency of communicative acts: 5 per 1-minute of free play
•Solicits another's attention vocally (possibly with a word)
•Requests objects by pointing, vocalizing, or using word approximations
•Also requests actions or help
•Protests by saying no, shaking head, or moving away
•Comments on objects or actions by directing the listener's attention to it by pointing, vocalizing, or using word approximations
•Answers simple wh- questions (who, what, when, where and why) with a vocal response
•Acknowledges speech of others by giving eye contact, vocally responding, or repeating a word said
What are some use (Pragmatics) Of locutionary stage?
The adaptive speech of adults, directed at infants
•Speech is systematically modified from that used in regular conversation
•Includes: short utterances, small vocabulary, increased use of facial expressions, treating infant behavior as meaningful, higher pitch & increased range of pitch/loudness, redundancy
•Keeps infant's attention
•Aids in establishment of emotional bonds
•Facilitates language learning through simpler language models
What is infant directed speech and why is it important?
Infant Directed Speech
Proxemics (the use of interpersonal space for communication)
What are some Caregiver Communication Behaviors that Support Development?
culture, socioeconomics, and gender differences
What is caregiver behavior influenced by?
Joint Reference/Joint Action
What are some Contexts that Support Language Development?
Two or more people share a common focus on one entity
•What are some examples (what might we "focus" on?) during the 3 different stages we discussed today?
•How do we gain shared attention?
What is joint reference?
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