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Politics of the United States
Napier Shaping a New Nation Review
Terms in this set (70)
A government in which citizens rule through elected representatives
The belief that government should be based on the consent of the people
Articles of Confederation
a document, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new United States
Land and Ordinance of 1785
law that established a plan for dividing the federally owned lands west of the Appalachian Mountains
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
a law that established a procedure for the admission of new states to the Union
an uprising of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers protesting increased state taxes in 1787
a political system in which a national government and constituent units, such as state governments, share power
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States. Created the Virginia Plan
the branch of government that makes the laws
a political leader from Connecticut who suggested the Great Compromise
the branch of government that administers and enforces the laws
the Constitutional Convention's agreement to establish a two-house national legislature, with all states having equal representation in one house and each state having representation based on its population in the other house
the branch of government that interprets the laws and the Constitution
the Constitutional Convention's agreement to count three-fifths of a state's slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
Checks and Balances
the provisions in the U.S. Constitution that prevent any branch of the U.S. government from dominating the other two branches
the official approval of the Constitution, or of an amendment, by the states
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
an opponent of a strong central government
series of essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution added in 1791
The system maintains the seperation of powers among the branches of the federal government is called?
Large and small states having equal representation in the Senate took ideas from Virginia and New Jersey plans to create Legislative branch.
The Great Compromise was an agreement about:
Antifederalists because they believed the Constitution weakened the states they wanted written promises of rights
What group supported the idea of adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
9/13 or 75%
How many states were needed to ratify the Constitution?
Explains how new territory will be provided and become states.
What were the accomplishments of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?
Farmers being evicted for not paying taxes to the government due to the war
Shays rebellion was a protest by farmers who faced what problems?
One vote per state
Under the Articles Confederations, each state's power in Congress, was based on?
President at this time the confederation congress led the government.
From the time of the Declaration of Independence until the ratification of the Constitution, the United States functioned without a?
The power to declare war, make peace, sign treaties, borrow money, set standards for coins and measures, postal services and deal with native peoples
Under the Articles Confederations, one of the few powers government held was?
What proposal called for a two house legislature, with one house having equal representation for each state and the other having representation based on population?
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
The process for admitting new states to the Union were set down in what document?
The office of president of the United States was first established in what document?
The nation needed a strong central government
Shays rebellion contributed to the belief among many political leaders that what was needed?
The branches trying to overthrow one another by having equal power no one has the opportunity to overthrow and get away with it.
The system of checks and balances is designed to prevent what happening?
Bill of Rights
The Anti-Federalist, in general, strongly supported what idea?
The bill of rights was added to protect individual liberty
Why was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
Congress could not impose taxes, could not regulate trade, each state only had one vote in congress, 2/3 majority 9 of 13 states needed to agree to pass a law, articles amended only if states approved, there was no executive branch to enforce laws, there was no national court system to settle legal disputes, 13 states lacked national unity
List problems under the Articles Confederations.
New states may be admitted to the United States only if they are approved by?
Judicial, executive, legislative
What are the three main branches of government?
Means the highest law nothing higher- the constitution
What is" the supreme law of the land"?
Yes the electoral college helps win
Can a president be elected if they received less votes than an opponent?
The commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy is who?
Size of population of each state would determine its representation
What decides the number of representatives a state holds in the House?
One term- 4 years Two terms- 8 years
How long is a president's term of office?
Establish requirements for admitting new states to the Union
One of the accomplishments of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was to
The national government lacked power to impose taxes or regulate trade
What is one reason the Articles of Confederation proved inadequate for governing the new nation?
One vote per state
Under the Articles each states power in government was based on
Debts they owed to creditors
Shays rebellion was a protest by farmers who faced problems from
People were worried that farmers in other states would also rebel to protest taxes
Why were the states worried by shays rebellion
determine a state's representation in Congress
The great compromise was an agreement about how to
The number of states need to ratify the constitution before lit could go into effect wa
They wanted states to have more power than the central government
Why did antifederalists oppose the constitution
Bill of Rights
Which did the federalists promise to add to the constitution if it was ratified
Protect personal liberties
Bill of rights was added to the constitution to
Freedom of speech, press, and religion
Which freedoms are guaranteed by the first amendment of the bill of rights
John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison
Who were the 3 Federalists
Was a federalist
alliance of independent states
Freedoms in the Bill of Rights
Religious and political freedom, to bear arms, quartering troops, unreasonable search and seizure, accused persons, speedy just trial, limits on fines and punishments, rights of the people, powers of the states and the people
They preferred a republic over a democracy because 18th-century Americans felt as though a democracy gave too much power to the uneducated masses.
Why did the new states prefer a republic rather than a democracy for their government?
Some states feared that with a strong central government, too much power would be given to that central government and not everyone's interest would be in mind.
Why did states fear a strong central government?
No power to tax, no control over foreign trade, no power to deal with foreign relations
In what ways was the confederation too weak to handle the nations problems
Big and small states could not agree on representation between the different sized states. Roger Sherman suggested the Great Compromise which offered a two-house Congress to satisfy both big and small states. Each state would have equal representation in the Senate (upper house), and the size of the population would determine its representation in the House of Representatives (lower house). Voters of each state would choose members of the House, and state legislatures would choose members of the Senate.
In what ways did compromise play a critical role in the drafting of the constitution?
The big question was if slaves should be counted as people. Southern delegates, whose states had many slaves, wanted slaves to be included in the population count because that would send their populations up and get them more representatives in the House. The North felt the opposite because they did not have as many slaves.
Why was the slave trade an issue at the constitutional convention?
The delegates protected the rights of the states, but they also granted some powers exclusively to the national government. First, they created three branches of government. A legislative branch to make laws, an executive branch to carry out laws, and a judicial branch to interpret the law. Then the delegates established a system of checks and balances to prevent one branch from dominating the others.
Briefly explain the separation of powers established by the constitution?
They believe the states and the individual rights of citizens were sufficiently protected
Why did the states ratify the constitution once a bill of rights was promised?
A person appointed or elected to represent others
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
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