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Pathophysiology Exam #3
Terms in this set (54)
A teenager sustains a severe closed head injury following an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accident and is in a state of deep sleep that requires vigorous stimulation to elicit eye opening. How should the nurse document this in the chart?
A patient experiences a severe head injury hitting a tree while riding a motorcycle. Breathing becomes deep and rapid but with normal pattern. What term should the nurse use for this condition?
Central neurogenic hyperventilation
What term is used to describe an explosive, disorderly discharge of cortical neurons?
A patient who recently suffered a cerebral vascular accident is now unable to recognize and identify objects by touch because of injury to the sensory cortex. How should the nurse document this finding?
Upper extremity flexion and lower extremity extension
upper and lower extremity extension
Irreversible loss of function of the entire brain
Immediately after being struck by a motor vehicle, a patient is unconscious, but regains consciousness before arriving at the hospital and appears alert and oriented. The next morning the patient is confused and demonstrates impaired responsiveness. The patient's history and symptoms support which medical diagnosis?
Extradural (epidural) hematoma
A patient is brought to the ER for treatment of injuries received in a boating accident. AN MRI reveals spinal cord injury, and his body temperature fluctuates markedly. The most accurate explanation of this phenomenon is that:
His sympathetic nervous system was damaged.
A 72-year-old patient demonstrates left-sided weakness of upper and lower extremities. The symptoms lasted an hour and resolved with no evidence of infarction. The patient most likely experienced a(n):
Transient ischemic attack
A patient is newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). What physiological change is causing the patient's symptoms?
Demyelination of nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS)
Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE regarding the type of brain injury in the image? (coup-contrecoup)
The smaller the area of impact, less severe injury results.
A nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with SIADH. What severe complication should the nurse assess for?
Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus (DM), and SIADH share which of the following assessment manifestations?
While checking lab results for a patient diagnosed with Graves disease, the nurse would expect the T3 level to be abnormally:
A patient diagnosed with Graves disease is admitted to the hospital. Which of the following symptoms would the nurse expect to find before treatment?
Skin hot and moist, rapid heart rate
Which hypothyroid diagnosis is supported by low levels of TSH?
When considering hypothyroidism, the basal metabolic rate is:
What is the cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)?
Immune destruction of the pancreas
What causes the chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications of DM?
A 19-year-old female with type 1 DM was admitted to the hospital with the following lab values: serum glucose 500 milligrams per deciliter (high), urine glucose and ketones 4+ (high), and arterial pH 7.20 (low). Her parents state that she has been sick with the "flu" for a week. Which of the following statements best explains her acidotic state?
Insulin deficiency promotes lipid metabolism and ketone formation.
What is the purpose of the glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c) test?
Monitoring long-term serum glucose control
A nurse checks lab results as both Cushing disease and Addison disease can manifest with elevated levels of:
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Which physical feature supports the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome?
Truncal obesity and moon face
The body's inability to conserve water and sodium when affected by Addison disease is explained by which of the following conditions?
Which of the following alterations would the nurse expect to find in a patient with untreated Cushing disease or syndrome?
A patient diagnosed with Addison disease reports weakness and is easily fatigued. What is the root of these symptoms?
A patient presents with breast discharge, dysmenorrhea, and excessive excitability. Tests reveal that all pituitary hormones are elevated. What does the nurse suspect as the most likely cause for these assessment findings?
Visual disturbances are a common occurrence in patients with untreated Graves disease. The endocrinologist explains to the patient that the main cause of these complications is:
Orbital edema and protrusion of the eyeball
A patient diagnosed with Graves disease underwent surgical removal of the thyroid gland. During the postoperative period, the patient's serum calcium is low. The most probable reason for her low serum calcium is:
Hypoparathyroidism caused by surgical injury to the parathyroid glands
The image on the left is a normal retina. The image on the right is a diseased retina. What endocrine disorder will most likely cause the changes seen in the diseased retina?
A patient is admitted to the medical unit of a hospital for complications of long-term, poorly controlled type 2 DM. Which of the following would the nurse expect to find in addition to elevated glucose?
A patient's anemia is described as having erythrocytes that demonstrate poikilocytosis. The nurse would recognize that the erythrocytes would:
Assume various shapes
After initial compensation, what hemodynamic change should the nurse monitor in a patient who has a reduction in the number of circulating erythrocytes?
Hyperdynamic circulatory state
A 45-year-old is diagnosed with macrocytic, normochromic anemia. The nurse suspects the most likely cause of this condition is:
Defective DNA synthesis
A 65-year-old experienced loss of appetite, weight loss, lemon-yellow skin, liver enlargement, and a beefy red tongue shortly before her death. An autopsy suggested pernicious anemia, and the cause of death would most likely reveal:
A 40-year-old male's history includes being a vegetarian and abusing alcohol. Which of the following factors puts him at greatest risk for developing folate deficiency anemia?
The nurse will check which of the following tests to directly measure iron stores?
Bone marrow biopsy
A patient is admitted to the emergency department with a diagnosis of polycythemia vera (PV). A nurse realizes the patient's symptoms are mainly the result of:
Increased blood viscosity
A 35-year-old male has enlarged lymph nodes in the neck and a mediastinal mass. He was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma. Which of the following abnormal cells would the nurse expect to find with this disease?
Thrombocytopenia may be:
Congenital or acquired
A patient develops disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Upon obtaining the history, which finding is the most likely cause of this condition?
In disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), the nurse assesses for active bleeding after intravascular clotting because:
Clotting factors are depleted
A patient wants to know about risk factors for acute leukemia. Which of the following should the nurse include? SELECT ALL THAT APPLY.
Chemotherapy treatment for other cancers
Excessive ultraviolet radiation exposure
A 15-year-old female with infectious mononucleosis is being given instructions on how to prevent the spread of this infection to others. Which statement by the patient demonstrates a correct understanding of the instructions?
"I won't share my drinking glasses or eating utensils."
infiltration by leukemic cells or infection
granulocytopenia or immune deficiency secondary to treatment and disease process
decreased stem cell input or erythropoesis
secondary to pain, depression, and treatment
A patient is diagnosed with acute leukemia. The patient will most likely be treated with:
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