History 1301.2 Hill @Night
Terms in this set (35)
This 3rd President of the US
wrote the Declaration of Independence
fought for very limited government
wanted strict interpretation of the US constitution
bought Louisiana from France
enacted an embargo to avoid a war with either France or Britain
Policy adopted by Thomas Jefferson, best exemplified by the Embargo Act (1807). He believed that Americans were so enamored with peace that they would take economic suffering over war. The policy proved a failure from the beginning. He was using economics as a diplomatic weapon.
Strict Interpretation of the Constitution
President Thomas Jefferson was committed to a strict interpretation of the Constitution and rejected Alexander Hamilton's argument that certain powers were implied. When Jefferson made the Louisiana Purchase he was troubled because the Constitution did not state explicitly that a president could purchase foreign land. He finally argued that the president's powers to make treaties allowed for the purchase. (p. 133)
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US.
Conflict between Britain and the United States that precipitated the 1807 embargo. The conflict developed when a British ship (The Leopard), in search of deserters, fired on the American Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia thus violating American sovereignty.
Chief Justice John Marshall
Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established judiciary as a branch of government equal to legislative and executive; established judicial review, which allows Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional. His decisions reinforced using the implied powers of the constitution to support such things as the formation of Bank of the US or to Purchase LA.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
Ogden v. Gibbons
Expanded Federal Powers; only federal government , specifically the congress, can regulate interstate trade
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review...that is the Supreme court will determine if national laws are constitutional or not.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819--New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so Macon's Bill No. 2 replaced it.
National Road (Cumberland Road)
The first transportation project built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Trail of Tears
(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states. This temporarily quelled southern fears regarding the balance of power.
National Republican Party After the 1824 election
, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by North westerners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radical ways; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions. In this era implied powers will be used to establish the Bank of the US, do internal improvements and buy Louisiana.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification. His personal feud with Jackson over the Eaton affair will contribute to his unyielding attitude about the tariffs. He will fight the tariff of 1828 by writing the South Carolina Exposition
A historic canal that connects the Hudson River at Albany in eastern New York with the Niagara River and the Great Lakes. It opened in 1825. This example of an intrastate transportation improvement was paid for by the state of NY.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
For twenty years, the British and the United States agreed to jointly occupy this region. But in the mid-1840s this region became a political issue in the United States, with many expansionists willing to risk war to get all of the territory, including present-day British Columbia (54 40 or fight!). In 1846, Britain and the United States agreed to extend the 49th Parallel, forming the modern border between Canada and the United States. The settlers quickly applied for territorial status, which Congress granted in 1849. The territory was gradually split up, and in 1859, it—with its present borders—became the 33rd state.
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific. Proponents literally believe that God's will was for USA expansion to the Pacific.
Embargo Act of 1807
Law that forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports and closed American ports to British ships. We avoided war but at great economic cost to the US
Bank of the US (1791)
Chartered by Congress as part of Alexander Hamilton's financial program, the bank printed paper money and served as a depository for Treasury funds. It drew opposition from Jeffersonian Republicans, who argued that the bank was unconstitutional but when faced with running the country himself, Jefferson leaves it in place.
federal projects, such as canals and roads, to develop the nation's transportation system. These programs were very strictly defined by Madison and Monroe and often vetoed as not meeting the constitutional guidelines.
Panic of 1819
inflation and land speculation destabilizing the economy - people couldn't pay the high interest loans they got from the Bank of the US This was the first depression.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
At the outset of the Mexican American war, Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory. Nueces or Rio Grande as border??
Corrupt Bargain of 1824
*Four presidential candidates: Henry Clay (Speaker of the House), John Quincy Adams (Secretary of the State), Andrew Jackson (1812 war hero), and William Crawford (Secretary of the Treasury)
*Jackson won the popular vote but did not win the majority of the electoral vote, and as a result, the election went to the House of Representatives
*In the House of Reps. vote, Henry Clay threw his support to Adams, who would go on to win the presidency
*Adams gave Clay the post of Secretary of State
*Accusations of a "corrupt bargain" were made by Jackson, but they are considered to be largely untrue
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
The Wilmot Proviso was a rider to a bill proposed by Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot in 1846 that sought to ban slavery in any territories or new states acquired from Mexico. Essentially the argument was over whether there would be slavery in Texas, New Mexico, California, and other new western states. The debate is considered a crucial part of the lead-up to the Civil War. It did not pass and war came.
*Debate in the Senate between Daniel Webster (MA) and Robert Hayne (SC) that focused on sectionalism and nullification
*Came after the "Tariff of Abominations" incident
*At issue was the source of constitutional authority: Was the Union derived from an agreement between states or from the people who had sought a guarantee of freedom?
*Webster stated, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable"
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Treaty of Ghent, provisions
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a call for us annexation of the Oregon territory
The Republican party after 1815
War taught Madison and Monroe to adopted many Federalist's party policies however they did not believe most internal improvements projects met the demands of the Constitution because they did not run state to state.
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