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10 - Immigration, Urbanization and Reform (Essentials)
Terms in this set (72)
The name for the immigrants who arrived in the United States in the late 1800s and early 1900s. They were different from the "Old Immigrants" in that they were often from Southern and Eastern Europe, were Catholic, Orthodox Christian or Jewish instead of Protestant. Unlike earlier groups of immigrants, they were also often poor and uneducated with few skills.
Inventor of a safe electric elevator. His invention made skyscrapers possible.
Prolific American inventor. His creations included the electric lightbulb, phonograph (record player) and movie camera.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone and founder of the various Bell Telephone Companies.
Frederick Law Olmsted
Champion of the City Beautiful Movement and designer of many famous city parks including Central Park in New York City.
Turn of the century social reformer and journalist. She invented the advice column for newspapers.
American newspaper publisher who helped pioneer the style of yellow journalism. His primary rival was William Randolph Hearst.
William Randolph Hearst
American newspaper publisher who helped pioneer the style of yellow journalism. His primary rival was Joseph Pulitzer.
A journalist at the turn of the century who research and published stories and books uncovering political or business scandal. The term was coined by President Theodore Roosevelt.
Muckraker and author of The Same of the Cities about corruption in city governments.
Muckraker and author of a tell-all book about John D. Rockefeller and the rise of Standard Oil.
Muckraker, photographer and author of the book How the Other Half Lives about the life in city slums.
Muckraker who wrote about corruption in New York government and business and traveled around the world in 72 days.
Muckraker and author of The Jungle about working and sanitary conditions in meat packing plants in Chicago at the turn of the century.
A legislative body for a city. Sometimes called a council, this form of government was a progressive reform and limited the influence of corrupt political machines by allowing voters to select city leaders.
A professional selected by a city government who executes policy. This was a progressive reform and sought to separate the decision to spend public money from the awarding of contracts, thus reducing corruption.
Political party formed in the late 1800s out of the Grange Movement. They advocated for the free coinage of silver, a graduated income tax and government regulation of business. Their leader was William Jennings Bryan. Eventually their members mostly joined the Democratic Party.
William Jennings Bryan
Populist, Progressive, and later democratic leader who championed the rights of farmers. His "Cross of Gold" speech catapulted him to national fame. He ran four times for president but never won.
Republican President first elected in 1896. He defeated William Jennings Bryan. Reelected in 1900, he led the nation through the Spanish-American War, but was assassinated.
Groups of people at the turn of the century interested in making change in society, business and government. They were often urban, northeastern, educated, middle class, and protestant.
Founder of the Settlement House movement.
Advocate for education reform at the turn of the century. He championed the development of normal schools, which were colleges that prepared future teachers.
Robert La Follette
Progressive governor of Wisconsin. He led the way in promoting many reforms in state government.
Champion of birth control in the early 1900s.
Susan B. Anthony
Early champion of women's suffrage. She headed the NAWSA. She was honored when a silver dollar coin was minted in 1979 with her likeness.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Early champion of women's suffrage. She cofounded a group with Susan B. Anthony.
Early champion of women's suffrage. Her organization merged with that of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton's to form the NAWSA.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Major organization working for women's suffrage. It was led first by Susan B. Anthony and later by Carrie Chapman Catt.
Advocate for women's suffrage in the early 1900s. She founded the National Women's Party and used more aggressive tactics to publicize the movement.
National Woman's Party (NWP)
Organization founded by Alice Paul in 1916 to work for women's suffrage. They used more aggressive tactics to spread their message.
Carrie Chapman Catt
Leader of the NAWSA in the early 1900s. She succeeded Susan B. Anthony and saw the ratification of the 19th Amendment.
Reasons to leave a place. In the time of the New Immigrants these included religious persecution, war, famine and poverty.
Reasons to come to a place. In the time of the New Immigrants these included jobs, religious freedom, education and land.
A belief that people born in the United States are superior to immigrants.
The process of developing cities.
A style of newspaper writing pioneered by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst at the turn of the century featuring bold headlines, images and sensational stories designed to capture readers' attention and sell papers. This style is generally credited with inflaming public opinion in the lead up to the Spanish-American War.
Free Coinage of Silver
Objective of the Populist Party. They wanted inflation to ease loan repayments and asked the government to go off the gold standard. This was the topic of William Jennings Bryan's famous "Cross of Gold" speech.
Graduated Income Tax
An income tax system in which wealthy individuals pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than lower class individuals.
When citizens can gather signatures and force their legislature to vote on an issue.
When citizens can gather signatures and have a proposed law put on a ballot so everyone can vote. This was a way to enact legislation that might otherwise have been prevented by business interests who could pay off elected officials.
When citizens can gather signatures and force a vote to remove an elected official. This was enacted to curb corruption in government.
A government policy toward business that favored low taxes and regulation.
An idea common at the turn of the century applying the survival of the fittest concept to human experiences. It argued that people and nations that succeed did so because they were inherently superior to those who lost or were less successful.
A way of approaching problems developed by William James at the turn of the century. It advocated that people did not need to accept life as it was, but could work for change.
Social Gospel Movement
A movement at the turn of the century based on the belief that helping the poor was a Christian virtue. Members of the movement built settlement houses, formed the YMCA and YWCA and founded the Salvation Army.
A place in large cities where new immigrants could come to learn English, job skills, and find childcare while they worked. The most famous was Hull House in Chicago.
Cult of Domesticity
Idea that men should leave home to work and earn money while women stayed at home to cook, clean and raise children. It developed in the early 1800s with the onset of the industrial revolution.
Any form of contraception. The term was coined by Margaret Sanger.
The right to vote.
Major immigration station in New York Harbor.
Major immigration station in San Francisco Harbor.
Cities built around a larger city. These developed because mass transit made it possible to live far from where a person worked.
The most famous settlement house. It was founded by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889.
Clinic opened in Brooklyn, NY by Margaret Sanger to provide birth control. It was closed down and Sanger was arrested for violation of the Comstock Act.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Law passed in 1882 ending immigration from China and preventing Chinese immigrants already in the United States from applying for citizenship.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Law passed in 1906 providing public inspection of food and pharmaceutical production. It was inspired in part by Upton Sinclair's book The Jungle.
Meat Inspection Act
Law passed in 1906 providing regulation of the meat industry. It was inspired in part by Upton Sinclair's book The Jungle.
Law passed in 1916 prohibiting the shipment of products across state lines created with child labor. It was struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Hammer v. Dagenhart in 1918. It was replaced by the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Fair Labor Standards Act
Law passed in 1938 protecting workers, and effectively ending child labor in America.
Constitutional amendment that made a federal income tax legal.
Constitutional amendment that provided for the direct election of senators.
Constitutional amendment ratified in 1920 granting women the right to vote.
Law passed in 1873 the prohibited the distribution of birth control and any material promoting birth control. It was used to prosecute Margaret Sanger.
Any form of transportation in cities designed to move many people. These include busses, subways, trolley cars and elevated trains.
Similar to a subway, these trains ran on tracks built on bridges above city streets. The most famous is in Chicago and nicknamed the "L."
A form of mass transit that has trains running in tunnels underground. The first in the United States was in Boston, but the most famous is in New York City.
Tall buildings in cities. They made it possible for many more people to live and work in a smaller area.
Public housing designed to provide inexpensive places to live in cities. Designed by James Ware, they were usually overcrowded, dirty, and places where disease was common.
Major public works at the turn of the century designed to clean wastewater and provide clean drinking water.
The Shame of the Cities
Lincoln Steffens' book about corruption in major American cities at the turn of the century.
How the Other Half Lives
Jacob Riis's book of photographs about life in city slums at the turn of the century.
Upton Sinclair's book about working and sanitary conditions in meat packing plants in Chicago at the turn of the century.
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