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Philosophy Exam 3
Terms in this set (58)
true knowledge is logically based
the study of knowledge
knowledge comes from the senses
A priori knowledge
knowledge which comes "prior to" sense experience and is indubitable
the process of doubting everything to see if there is anything that cannot be doubted
Rene Descartes - 3 things you could know for certain
Intuition of mind, Eidological proof, and the Deduction of Matter
Intuition of Mind
How do we know for certain that we are thinking things?
I exist and am a thinking thing
If I have an idea of perfection, then there must actually exist a perfect being as its cause.
Deduction of Matter
The physical world around us exists and is real - why? Because God ensures constancy in the universe, thus ensuring that our mathematical and scientific theories are true
All reality is either mind (a thinking thing: humans, animals) or matter (non-thinking "stuff" like chairs, tables, rocks, etc.)
once you separate mind (non-physical) and matter (the physical "stuff") how do you put them back together, because mind and matter obviously interact and are not completely separate
mind influences matter, and we know matter influences mind
Solution to the Mind-Matter problem, Descartes, claimed that Mind and Matter interact in the pineal gland in the brain
Ghost in the Machine
Solution to the Mind-Matter problem, Gilbert Ryle, argued that the Mind-Matter Problem was a "Ghost in the Machine": that Descartes made a category mistake.made a linguistic mistake when he said mind was a non-physical substance using physical language to describe mind
Solution to the Mind-Matter problem, a shift from trying to define what the mind is, to what the mind does
the theory that all things are constituted by mind and it's ideas
the argument that all knowledge is based on sense experience
knowledge comes after sense experience
that we are essentially born as "blank slates" and only through sense experience (seeing, touching, tasting, smelling, hearing) do we acquire knowledge
The first Idealist philosopher , believed all reality could be reduced to two substances: Mind (underlying "something" that thinks) and Matter (underlying "stuff" of reality; non-thinking material like wood, rocks, metal, etc)
the notion that there are two things that go into "knowing"
1. The knower: the knower is the person who is perceiving the table
2. The known:is not the object itself, but the idea of the object you have in your mind.
qualities that exist independently of a perceiving mind and include size, shape, weight, and motion
qualities that exist only when directly perceived: color, smell, taste, texture and sound
Division of Sensible Qualities
all objects contain both Primary Qualities and Secondary Qualities
focused his theory of reality in a three-word Latin sentence: Esse est percipi (to be is to be perceived).
Ideas exist only in minds. All things are ideas. Therefore, all things exist only in minds.
esse est percipi
to be is to be perceived
Berkeley, all reality is reducible to mind and ideas
Berkeley's 1st proof for idealism
The Discontinuity of Dualism: How can mind know reality if reality is utterly unlike mind and its ideas? Berkeley solves this by asserting that reality is ideas
Berkeley's 2nd proof for idealism
Matter as a Meaningless Idea: It is not possible to frame a meaningful idea of matter, because "matter" has no qualities
Berkeley's 3rd proof for idealism
The Unexperienced as Inconceivable: You cannot think of something without thinking of its qualities, and to think of qualities is to perceive or experience them
Berkeley's 4th proof for idealism
The Inseparability of Primary and Secondary Qualities: Locke's Primary and Secondary qualities are inseparable, you cannot experience one without the other.
Berkeley's 5th proof for idealism
The Relativity of both Primary and Secondary Qualities: we all agree that smell, taste, sound, color, texture are relative (for example: what is sour to one person is not sour to another)
Problems with Idealism
1. Solipsism: the theory that only "I" exist and that everything is a projection of my mental states; if esse est percipi is true, isn't solipsism the only true conclusion? No, says Berkeley, because even when no individual perceiver is experiencing something (like a tree falling in the forest), there is something that experiences all: God.
2. The Egocentric Predicament: if Berkeley is correct, then all we can ever know about the world is our own experience and perceptions
vivid sense experiences; if you are looking at this powerpoint slide, you are having an impression (an experience that is happening right now)
memories of impressions we have experienced.
we can only know our own experiences, and these experiences are influenced by imagination
Immanuel Kant, the idea that our knowledge of reality is a combination of Rationalism and Empiricism
Immanuel Kant, knowledge that our senses reveal the tastes, smells, sounds, and shapes of objects in the world.
Immanuel Kant, our brain is "hard-wired" to rationally organize our sense experience.
Immanuel Kant, The world as it might really be apart from our mind
Immanuel Kant, Because our minds co-construct reality, we only ever experience an ordered world
a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it
Friedrich Nietzsche, all ideations take place from particular perspectives.
refer to different ways of knowing things
promotes notions of absolute truth, involving contentions that in particular realms of thought, all statements in that domain are either absolutely true or absolutely false
The term is used to describe the ways in which women, and other minority groups, are able to have a much clearer understanding of how the power structure works within a given society because they are not members of the dominant group
theory about causation under which every "substance" only affects itself, but all the substances (both bodies and minds) in the world nevertheless seem to causally interact with each other
holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all phenomena, including mental phenomena and consciousness, are identical with material interactions.
idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world
the idea that all events are determined in advance.
the Divine foreordaining or foreknowledge of all that will happen
the genetic and biological endowment and ultimately evolved nature of the organism
theory of mind that mental concepts can be explained in terms of behavioral concepts
to the effect that these experiences just are brain processes, not merely correlated with brain processes.
mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they are made o
claim is that people's common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.
Discuss the three things Descartes claimed you could know for certain. Explain the resultant mind-matter problem
Intuition of mind, Eidological proof, and the Deduction of Matter. once you separate mind (non-physical) and matter (the physical "stuff") how do you put them back together, because mind and matter obviously interact and are not completely separate
mind influences matter, and we know matter influences mind
Compare the epistemological views of John Locke and George Berkeley (what were their basic ideas). What was the major difference between the two?
John Locke believed all reality could be reduced to two substances: Mind and Matter. George Berkeley all reality is reducible to mind and ideas.
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