82 terms

Wildlife Techniques Test 2 Silvy Readings

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camera effectiveness factors
-battery life
-data capacity
-resolution
2 types of remote cameras
-active infared (AIR)
-passive infared (PIR)
active infared
(aka beam-break sensors)
-create a beam of infared light/trip line
passive infared
detects movement and radiation
wildlife crossing structures
overpasses/underpasses/exclusion fencing
-cameras used to monitor
pitfalls of camera use
-security
-invertebrates
-environmental conditions
-camera placement
-nontarget species
thermal infared imagery
-converts invisible infared into visoble
-detect animals
peep cameras
closed-circuit cameras on poles used for woodpecker viewing
gis
geographic information system
gps
Global Positioning System
lidar
Light Detection and Ranging
Spatial technologies
tools to incorporate and analyze large datasets
gis
Geographic Information System
CHAP
combined habitat assessment protocols
uses of GIS
-amounts
-patterns
-trends
first wildlife-habitat types map
greated by Kiilsgaard and Barrett in Pacific northwest
spatial relationship
describe association among landscape features (topological and directional)
PVA
population viability analysis
hot spots
areas of high species richness or centers of species endemism/rarity
GAP
national gap analysis program
-assesses the representation of native species across a landscape
digital elevation models
DEMs
dynamic data delivery
allows servers to reduce maintenance of data delivery system by updating linkages and reducing redundancy automatically
navstar
other name for GPS
air force maintains at least _____ satellites
24 gps
GNSS
global navigation satellite system
-generic term for all satellite navigation systems
gps accuracy is based on
-type/quality of receiver
-quality of signals
-differential correction
3 grades of GPS receivers
-consumer grade
-mapping grade
-survey grade
DGPS corrections are delivered from base station 2 main ways
-postprocessed
-realtime
natality
number of young produced per unig of population per unit of time
corpora lutea
"yellow bodies" or scars on the ovary showing past ovulations
reproductive rate
measured as the average number of female offspring produced by females in a given age-group
amniotes
reptiles, birds, mammals
3 major stages of reproduction in females
-ovarian activation and mating
-ovulation/fertilization and embryo
-hatching/birth and parental care
follicular development is associated with increased
estrogen
estrus
behavioral state of receptivity associated with elevated estrogen
estradiol
hormone that rises just before estrus
estrous cycle
-diestrus
-proestrus
-estrus
-metestrus
3 types of cells found in vaginal smear procedures
-polymophonuclear leukocyte
-nucleated epithelial cell
-keratinized epithelial cell
postovulatory follicles
pigmented structures found in avian species
laparotomy
incision into the abdomen to see left testis/ovary
clutch size
number of eggs on a nest
laparoscopy
visual examination of the abdomen
corpus luteum
unambiguous sign of ovulation
Mayfield Method
monitoring of all individuals in a nest to observe success
placental scars
previous placental attachments
prolactin
stimulates incubation behavior and brood patches in birds
order of hormone spikes
-progesterone
-estrogen
-lh
collecting hormones
-urine and feces
-blood samples can be influenced by blood draw stress
Immunocontraception
A birth control method that uses the body's immune response to prevent pregnancy
2 categories of reproductive control for wildlife
-hormonal
=immunocontraceptive
nearly all endocrine/immune stress indicators are
invasive because they require a blood sample
peripheral blood
Blood obtained from the circulation away from the heart, such as from the fingertip, heel pad and earlobe or from an antecubital vein
radioimmunoassay (RIA)
test used to measure levels of hormones in plasma of blood
RIA regents (2)
-antiserum
-radiolabeled from of hormone
Enzymeimmunoassay
EIA
small population
influenced by species characteristics
(extinction probability)
-ecological function
-ability to adapt/evolve
critically endangered
less than 50 adults
endangered
less than 250 adults
vulnerable
less than 1000 adults
critically imperiled
less than 1000 individuals exist
apparently secure
more than 10,000 individuals exist
ESA
endangered species act of 1973
deterministic factors
predictable outcome
stochastic effects
random factors affecting small populations with great intensity
3 main types of stochasticity
-demographic
-environmental
-genetic
genetic stochasticity
random loss of alleles
the extinction vortex
A downward population spiral in which inbreeding and genetic drift combine to cause a small population to shrink and, unless the spiral is reversed, become extinct.
populaiton viability analysis
PVA
-probability a populaiton will persist into the future
3 concepts of quantitative viability assessment
-persistence threshhold
-time
-lieklihood
3 messages on assessing viability
-know data quality
-assessment is more a tool for ranking management options than a predictor
-consider the range of possibilities
conservation reliant species
species that would go extinct without ongoing human intervention
Daubenmire Quadrats
20 by 50 centimeter sampling quadrats
line-intercept method
Line of fixed length stretched between two stakes.

Coverage of plants, bare ground, litter, etc... is
measured along length - % of tape intersecting a plant
species is the coverage for that plant

Best for areas dominated by shrubs or bunchgrasses
Robel pole
to measure height of total visual obscurity
in grasslands - observer views from 4m distance &
records lowest 5cm mark visible
DBH
diameter at breast height
lidar
laser imaging detection and ranging systems
habitat suitability index models
based on suitability indices formulated from variables that affect the life cycle and survival rates of each species
Interspersion
A measurement of the intermixing of different habitat types
gap analysis
a biogeographical technique of mapping biological diversity and endemic species to find gaps between protected areas that leave endangered habitats vulnerable to disruption
Mast production
...
are prey considered part of the habitat by fisheries
NO
are prey considered part of the habitat by wildlife biologists
YES