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Ch 2 - Pharm
Drug Classes, Schedules, and Catagories
Terms in this set (41)
What are two major ways medications can be classified?
Therapeutic and Pharmacologic classifications.
Therapeutic = therapeutic usefulness
Pharmacologic = how they work pharmacologically
drugs are organized on the basis of their usefulness in treating a particular disorder. (not complicated; state clearly what a particular drug does clinically)
are catagorized based on how they produce their effects in the body, the drug's mechanism of action. (more specific than therapeutic classification; requires understanding of human biochemical and physiological principles)
What is mechanism of action?
how a drug produces its effect in the body
What is a prototype drug?
the original, well-understood drug model from which other medications in a pharmacologic class have been developed. Used to compare drugs within the same classification.
List the three basic types of drug names.
What are the major differences between a chemical, a generic, and a trade name?
**Chemical name: assigned by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Complicated but clear, concise meaning.
**Generic: assigned by the U.S. Adopted Name Council. Less complicated than chemical names. Only one generic name for each drug. Routinely used name. Usually written in lowercase.
**Trade Name (also called proprietary/product/brand name): assigned by the company marketing the drug. Selected to be snappy and easy to remember. Usually written capitalized.
What are combination drugs?
Drugs with more than one active generic ingredient.
Which name is most often used to describe the active ingredients within a drug product?
What is bioavailability?
the [physiologic] ability of a drug to reach its target cells and produce its effect
How can bioavailability be affected?
by inert ingredients and tablet compression. When generic drugs are substituted, differences in bioavailability may affect the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy.
What are some differences between brand name drugs and their generic equivalents?
Price, formulations, and most importantly, bioavailability.
Drugs are sometimes placed on a negative formulary list because:
Some generic drugs are unsafe to substitute for equivalent brand name products.
What is addiction?
the overwhelming feeling that drives someone to use a drug repeatedly.
What is dependence?
(term related to addiction) defined as a physiologic or psychological need for a substance.
What is physical dependence?
refers to an altered physical condition caused by the nervous system adapting to repeated drug use.
What is withdrawal?
when physically dependent, drug is no longer available and the individual experiences physical signs of discomfort.
What does it mean to be psychologically dependent?
few signs of discomfort when the drug is withdrawn; however, individual feels an intense, compelling desire to continue drug use.
What are scheduled drugs?
classified according to their potential for abuse. Schedule I drugs have the highest potential for abuse, and Schedule V drugs have the lowest.
Describe Schedule I drugs according to the Drug Schedule:
Limited or no therapeutic use. (i.e. heroin, LSD, marijuana, and methaqualone)
Describe Schedule II drugs according to the Drug Schedule:
High abuse potential; dispensed therapeutically with prescription. (i.e. no longer used: morphine, PCP, cocaine, methadone, and methamphetamine)
Describe Schedule III drugs according to the Drug Schedule:
high psychological / moderate physical dependency potential; dispensed therapeutically with prescription. (i.e. anabolic steroids, codeine and hydrocodone with aspirin or tylenol, and some barbiturates)
Describe Schedule IV drugs according to the Drug Schedule:
Low abuse potential; dispensed therapeutically with prescription. (i.e. Darvon, Talwin, Equanil, Valium, Xanax)
Describe Schedule V drugs according to the Drug Schedule:
Used therapeutically without prescription (i.e. OTC cough medicines with codeine)
Not all drugs with an abuse potential are regulated or placed into schedules. Name some significant examples.
Tobacco, alcohol, caffeine
What is a controlled substance?
a drug restricted by the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and later revisions.
What agency handles drug misuse?
The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
What are restricted drugs?
In Canada, not intended for human use. Medications used in the course of a chemical or an analytical procedure for medical, laboratory, industrial, educational, or research purposes.
Describe Canada's drug schedule.
**Schedule I: all prescription drugs
drugs with no potential for abuse
**Schedule II: all nonprescription drugs monitored for sale by pharmacists
**Schedule III: all nonprescription drugs not monitored for sale by pharmacists
A teratogen is:
Any substance that will harm a developing fetus or embryo.
What is the MOST harmful of the five pregnancy drug categories?
(Category A is the safest)
Describe Category A of the pregnancy drug categories.
Studies HAVE NOT shown a risk to women or to the fetus. (i.e. Synthroid)
Describe Category B of the pregnancy drug categories.
Animal studies have NOT shown a risk to the fetus or, if they have, studies in women have not confirmed this risk. (i.e. amoxicillin, insulin)
Describe Category C of the pregnancy drug categories.
Animal studies HAVE shown a risk to the fetus, but controlled studies have not been performed in women. (i.e. Senokot)
Describe Category D of the pregnancy drug categories.
Use of this drug MAY cause harm to the fetus, but it may provide benefit to the mother if a safer therapy is not available. (i.e. Coumadin)
Describe Category X of the pregnancy drug categories.
Studies HAVE shown a significant risk to women and to the fetus. (i.e. castor oil)
Which type of drug classification focuses on what a drug does clinically?
HOW a medication produces its effects in the body is referred to as a drug's:
mechanism of action
In which categories does a drug have only one name?
Chemical and Generic names
Which drug name is sometimes called the proprietary name, suggesting ownership?
Are relatively safe if they take medications within pregnancy safety category B.