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2.5 Preschool Years: Pragmatic Language Development
Terms in this set (23)
Running, climbing stairs without help, balancing on 1 foot
•Fine motor abilities: dressing self except shoe tying, taking apart objects, drawing more representationally & begins to copy letters
•Play: imaginative with lots of make-believe, plays with others, shares, takes turns; often involves lots of talking and noise-making
•Counts to 5 or higher, but has a limited understanding of "quantity" > 3 objects
•Increased memory allows retelling of past events and short stories
What is preschool life like 3-5 years of age?
Tremendous vocabulary group?
What is preschool language like 3-5 years of age?
has strong expressive command of 900 to 1,000 words and uses about 12,000 individual words per day
What is a 3 year old's language like?
Tell simple stories of his/her own & form more complex sentences
•Vocabulary has increased to 1,500 - 1,600 words, with approximately 15,000 words used each day
•Are good, simple conversationalists
What is a 4 year old's language like?
Informal interchange of thoughts, ideas, information, etc.
•Usually involve 2 or more persons
What is a conversation?
Preschoolers often engage in monologues
•Conversations with self, no desire to engage others
•May account for 20-30% of utterances of 4-year-olds
•Can be rich with song, sounds, and nonsense words
What is a preschoolers conversation like?
Topic Introduction, Maintenance, Closure
What are some things to consider within a conversation?
Topic Introduction, Maintenance, Closure
How does it work?
Once introduced, the topic is maintained by:
2.Altering the focus of the topic
3.Requesting more information
•Topic is changed by:
4.Introducing a new topic
5.Reintroducing a previous topic
6.Ending the conversation
What is conversation developemental like?
Skilled at initiating a topic by glancing, gestures, vocalizing, verbalizing
•Limited to topics that are physically present
•Topics are maintained 1-2 turns (usually imitation or new related information) unless in well-established routine
What is conversation like at 12 months?
Able to maintain topic in adjacent pairs of utterances
•Often question/answer -> the adult partner structures the conversation for coherence
What is conversation like at 2-3 years?
Able to maintain topic in 75% of utterances
•Topic maintenance is extended in familiar scenarios, dramatic play, etc.
•May use repetition to help extend the conversation
What is conversation like at 3-4 years?
Continue to use frequent repetition to acknowledge, provide cohesion, and fill turns
•Topics still change quickly - may discuss as many as 50 different topics within 15 minutes
What is conversation like at 4-5 years?
Preschoolers are not always successful in clarifying his or her message
•Struggle to reformulate message in response to facial expression & must be asked to do so
•Revisions or pauses may be due to the child "searching" for the correct sentence form or word
What is conversational repair?
What are some commonly used strategies for conversation repairs?
different styles of speaking for different roles
First preschoolers use pitch & loudness variation to denote different roles
•Understanding when to use polite words ("Gimme that" versus "Please may I have a cookie?")
What are registers?
Ability to make assumptions about a listener's knowledge
Knowing what information to include
How to arrange it
Which lexical items and linguistic forms to use
By age 3, kids are generally able to determine the amount of information a listener needs.
What is presupposition?
terms used to direct attention, to make spatial contrasts, and to denote times or participants in a conversation from the speaker's point of view
Correct use of these terms indicates pragmatic & cognitive growth - because they must adopt the perspective of another person
What is Deixis?
Children communicate for a variety of reasons
•Exclamation and call
•Wanting, direct request, and statement
•Prohibition, intention, content response, expressive state, and elicited repetition
•Yes/no question, verbal accompaniment, and contingent query
•Offer an indirect request
What are intentions?
Direct ("Give me the car.")
•Indirect ("Will you pour the juice?")
Intentions can be what?
•Request for clarification
•"I wonder" statement
•Expansion with yes/no
•Extension with wh-turn about
What do adult scaffold conversations involved?
Uninterrupted stream of language
•Modified by the speaker to capture and hold the listener's interest
•Differ from monologues because they involve a speaker & a listener
•Include: made-up stories, telling familiar tales, retelling books/movies/tv shows, recounting personal experiences
What a re narratives?
Usually one person is doing the talking
•Language does not center on an immediate experience within the context
•Have a unique structure/organization
•Usually involve people, animals, or imaginary characters involved in events
A child's narrative involves what?
Usually include > 1 person participating in a language exchange
•Typically center on an immediate (shared) context or activity
A child's conversation usually involves what?
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