18 terms

Cellular Respiration (2018 Honors)

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Producer
aka autotroph - an organism that makes its own food
Autotroph
aka producer - an organism makes its own food
ATP
the energy currency of cells and the energy rich product of cellular respiration
ADP
(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
Photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Cellular Respiration
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Consumer
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms aka heteroroph
Heterotroph
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
Mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most eukaryotic cells, in which the biochemical processes of cellular respiration and ATP production occur.
Aerobic
Process that requires oxygen
Anaerobic
Process that does not require oxygen
Fermentation
A process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without oxygen and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Alcoholic fermentation
the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol
Lactic acid fermentation
A series of anaerobic chemical reactions using pyruvic acid that supplies energy when oxygen is scarce. Occurs in the muscle cells of some animals
Glycolysis
A metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP. It does NOT require the presence of oxygen
Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle
Series of reactions that breakdown pyruvic acid and produces 2ATP during the process of aerobic respiration. Takes place in the mitochondria.
Electron carriers in Cellular Respiration
NADH and FADH2
Electron transport chain
the process in cellular respiration (aerobic) that produces the most ATP (32-34)
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