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A member of one of the Germanic peoples, the Angles and the Saxons, who settled in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries.


Starting in Europe around 800 AD, a system of organizing and governing society based on land and service.


A Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul (roughly the area now occupied by France) and established a great empire during the Middle Ages.


In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence (manor house), outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.

Manor System

An economic system of exchanging land use and protection for goods and services.


A group of Muslims from North Africa who conquered Spain in the eighth century who were defeated by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours.


Peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free.


Mock battles between knights.


Traveling minstrel lyricists who sang of love and romance, assisting the development of the european vernacular literatures & chivalry.


A lesser noble in Europe who served as a mounted warrior for a lord During the Middle Ages.


In feudal Europe, a person who received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services.


In feudal Europe, a person who controlled land and could therefore grant estates and offer protection to vassalsin return for rent and services.

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