24 terms

genetics ch 5 and 24

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dominance
interaction between different alleles of a gene
incomplete penetrance
genotype does not show expected phenotype, could be bc of env't factors. ex: polydactly, rabbits have white bodies and black ears in cold temp
epistasis
one gene overlaps another. non additive interaction between 2 genes controlling the same phenotype
polygenic inheritance
multiple genes contribute to the phenotype, kernel color in wheat: purple, white, red, dark red. env't favtors cause genotypes to overlap
cytoplasmic inherited trait
encoded genes in the cytoplasm, random sorting of mitochondria. PASSED FROM MOTHER TO OFFSPRING, diabetes, blind, deaf, inheritance of leaf color green, white and mixed.
genetic maternal effect
genes inherited from both parents but phenotype is det. by nuclear genotype of MOTHER. she deposits gene product in the cytoplasm of the egg. direction of snails coiling. S+ dexteral, S sinistral
genomic imprinting
diff expression of a gene depending on whether it was from their mother or father
sex influenced gene
autosomal trait is expressed as DOM in one sex, and rec in the other. influenced by the individual (Sex), baldness is Dom in men, rec in female
sex limited trait
autosomal trait that can be inherited from either sex but is not expressed in one sex, cock and hen feathers
continous traits
aka quantitative, many different phenotypes, 1 ft, 2 ft 3 ft
non continous trait
only 2 phentotypes, tall/ short
incomplete dominance
a mixture of dominance, straight hair, curly and in the mix is wavy
codominance
2 dom phentoypes together AB blood type
partial penetrance/ EXPRESSVITIY
can be due to interactions between alleles that make for contribution
penetrance
percentage that have the genotype having the genotype, IMAGE SOME HAVE IT SOME DONT
expressivity
the extent to which the phenotype is expressed. cystic fibrosis can be really bad, or not as bad. polydactly
lethal alleles
can be dom/ recessive, 2:1 ratio. yellow mice YY dead
ABO blood
A can be AA or AO, B can be BB BO, O does not have the antigen A and B do, A creates B and B creates A antibody
can blood tests be used to determine paternity?
no, chaplin case
pleiotropy
single utation is a gene affects several characters, cycstic fibrosis affects lungs and airways
drosophilia
the males are determined by how many X they have, they have one x XY, and women have XXY, and Y does not determine sex but if they are fertile or not
ZZ/ZW
women are heterozygous ZW and get the W from mom, and Z from dad and male r zz homozygous
what is necessary for a male to be a male
SRY gene, it makes the gonads into testes, if they dont have it or it is deleted they will be a female and gonads will turn into ovaries
ABO, MN, Bombay
codominance for ABO and MN and Bombay is ex of epistatis (overlap of a gene)
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