Crime-Scene Chapter 2


Terms in this set (...)

chain of custody
the documented and unbroken transfer of evidence
circumstantial evidence
(indirect evidence) evidence used to imply a fact but not prove it directly
class evidence
material that connects an individual or thing to a certain group
crime-scene investigation
a multidisciplinary approach in which scientific and legal professionals work together to solve a crime
crime scene reconstruction
a hypothesis of the sequence of events from before the crime was committed through its commission
direct evidence
evidence that (if true) proves an alleged fact, such as an eyewitness account of a crime
first responder
the first police officer to arrive at a crime scene
individual evidence
a kind of evidence that identifies a particular person or thing
paper bindle
a folded paper used to hold trace evidence
primary crime scene
the location where the crime took place
secondary crime scene
a location other than the primary crime scene, but that is in some way related to the crime, where evidence is found
trace evidence
small but measurable amounts of physical or biological material found at a crime scene
What is the goal of crime-scene investigation?
to recognize, document, and collect evidence at a crime scene
Hairs, fibers, blood droplet, used tissue, broken glass, paint chips, pollen, and skin cells can be considered
examples of trace evidence
Locard's Exchange Principle
states that when a person comes in contact with an object or another person, a cross-transfer of physical evidence can occur
Intensity, duration, and nature of the materials in contact
influence the extent of transfer
Two types of evidence
direct and circumstantial (indirect)
Direct evidence (first hand observations) include
confession, videos, and eyewitness testimony
Circumstantial evidence includes both
physical and biological evidence
Examples of physical evidence include
fingerprints, tool marks, fibers, paint chips, shoe and tire impressions, and weapons
Examples of biological evidence include
blood, skin cells, bodily fluids, plant parts, and natural fibers
Class evidence
narrows an identity to a group of persons or things
Individual evidence
narrows an identity to a single person or thing
First responders first responsibility
the safety of all individuals
First responders second responsibility
preservation of evidence
What may occur if a crime scene is left unsecured?
transfer, loss, or contamination of evidence can occur
Why will first responders separate witnesses?
done to avoid collusion (witnesses working together to create a story)
Objects should be measured from
two immovable landmarks
What may determine which pattern was used to search a crime scene?
number of investigators
Name of the patterns used to search a scene for evidence
spiral, grid, linear and quadrant
Searching for evidence
scene is walked, evidence is marked, scene is sketched, photographed, and then packaged