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Community DH board review
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Flashcards
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Test
Match
Terms in this set (116)
survey
Assessment in the dental practice is equivalent to what in community dental health?
analysis
Diagnosis in the dental practice is equivalent to what in community dental health?
Program planning
Treatment planning in the dental practice is equivalent to what in community dental health?
program operation
Treatment in the dental practice is equivalent to what in community dental health?
finance
Payment in the dental practice is equivalent to what in community dental health?
evaluation/appraisal
Evaluation in the dental practice is equivalent to what in community dental health?
World health organization
What level of government in public health focuses on health problems of international status?
Federal
What level of government in public health focuses on health problems of national population?
Department of health and human services
Who is responsible for healthy people 2020?
state
What level of government in public health focuses on health problems of state populations and consults with local health departments?
Local
What level of government in public health focuses on health problems of local population (county or city)
Epidemiology
Provides general understanding for critically interpreting new information in literature?
Endemic
A disease that regularly in a population as a matter of course?
(Way to remember: At the end of the day don't worry about it because it happens regularly)
Epidemic
An unexpectedly large number of cases of a disease in a particular time and place?
(Way to remember: epi: above sudden spike)
Pandemic
An outbreak of disease over a wide geographical area such as a continent?
(Way to remember: Pano allows you to see a big area)
Rate
The number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time
Natality
The number of live births
mobidity
The rate of an illness in a population
(Way to remember: morbid, makes you sick to your stomach)
Mortality
The number of deaths in a population
(Way to remember: mortal- you can die)
Incidence
The number of new cases in a population at risk during a particular period of time; conveys info about the risk of contracting a disease?
Prevalence
The number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time; tells how widespread the disease is
Attack
An incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak (sudden)
Descriptive studies
Describes an epidemic with respect to person, place and time. Helps determine WHO is getting the disease; WHERE the disease is occurring and WHEN the disease occurs
Analytical studies
Aimed at testing a hypothesis, answers a question with several different types
Retrospective study
Type of analytical study (case control study) that seeks to compare those diagnosed with a disease with those who do not have it (past)
Prospective study
Type of analytical study where A cohort is classified by exposure to one or more specific risk factors observed into the future to determine the rate at which the disease develops (future)
Longitudinal study
Type of analytical study where a group is observed over a long period of time
Experimental studies
Studies carried out under controlled situations
Control groups
Type of group used in an experimental study that has the experimental treatment withheld (placebo)
Treatment groups
Type of group used in an experimental study that receives the experimental treatment
Blindness
Type of experimental study where researchers remain uninformed and unaware of the identities of treatment and control group members to prevent bias
Double blindness
Type of experimental study where neither the researcher nor the subjects know who is receiving the treatment
Simple
valid
reliable
clear
sensitive
quantifiable
objective
accepted
What are the 8 characteristics of an ideal index?
Reversible
Irreversible
simple (yes or no)
cumulative (all evidence)
What are the 4 general categories of indices?
DMFT/DMFS
type of indices that is irreversible, measures the past and present caries experience of a population with PERMANENT TEETH.
DEFT
Type of indices that is irreversible, measures observable caries experience in PRIMARY TEETH, does not take into account teeth that have been extracted or exfoliated due to past caries experience.
(Way to remember: Kids are def)
Dft/dfs
Type of indices that takes into account of all decayed, filled teeth/ decayed filled surfaces?
RCI
Type of indices that is irreversible and attempts to assess the extent of root caries experience within the context of individuals at risk for the disease?
Gingival index (GI)
Type of indices that is Reversible, based on severity of inflammation and location, can be used on individuals or study participant
Sulcular bleeding index (SBI)
Type of indices that is Reversible, detects early signs of gingivitis, used in short term trials.
Periodontal disease index (PDI)
Type of indices that is irreversible, measures the prevalence and severity of perio disease, measures both the reversible (gingival) and irreversible (attachment loss) of periodontal disease
Periodontal index (PI)
Type of indices that is irreversible, developed by RUSSEL, each tooth is scored according to the condition of surrounding tissue, DOES NOT MEASURE LOSS OF ATTACHMENT
Periodontal screening and recording (PSR)
Type of indices that rapidly assesses periodontal health, requires a special probe, preliminary screening in large populations (quick)
The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPTIN)
Indices Developed by WHO, determines periodontal NEEDS versus STATUS, requires special probe
Simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S)
Indices that is reversible, measures oral hygiene status, involves both a debris and calculus index
Plaque Index (PII)
Indices developed by Silness and Loe, reversible, measures different difference in thickness of soft deposits at gingival margin, used in conjunction with GI
Patient hygiene performance (PHP)
Type of indices that is reversible, assesses individuals performance in removing debris after toothbrushing
Volpe-Manhold index (VMI)
Type of indices that is reversible, used to test agents for plaque control and calculus inhibition, scores supragingival calculus following prophylaxis.
Baseline data
What is the most important part of assessments?
Survey
What is the best choice to assess large groups that must be well written?
Type I
Type of examination methods for assessments of a population that is a complete examination and includes a mouth mirror, explorer, lighting and limited radiographs
Type II
Type of examination method for assessments of a population that involves limited examination including mouth mirror, explorer, lighting, and limited radiographs
Type III
Type of examination for assessments of a population that uses mouth mirror and lighting only
Type IV
Type of examination for assessment of a population that uses tongue depressor and lighting only
Way to remember: M comes Before T= mouth=III tongue depressor= IV
MedicarE
Type of funding used in planning of community dental services that is health insurance for the elderly
Way to remember: E=elderly
Medicaid
Type of funding used in planning of community dental services that is health insurance for the poor
COBRA
Type of funding/resource used in planning of community dental services that offers insurance to workers that no longer work
18 months
How long will COBRA allow an individual to keep insurance after losing their job?
Block grants
Type of grant used in planning community dental services that is a lump sum of money given to group to use at their discretion
Line item grant
Type of grant used in planning community dental services that specifies where the monies are to be used
Goal
Broad based statement of what changes will occur as a result of a program
Way to remember: GOAL and BROAD both have O A in them
Objective
Specific statement that can be measured/time bound
Formal delivery
Part of implementation that ACTIVELY delivers the info through lectures, demonstration and discussion
Informal Delivery
Part of implementation that PASSIVELY delivers the info through pamphlets, brochures, etc.
Unawareness
Awareness
Self interest
Involvement
Action
Habit
Stages in the learning ladder?
Way to remember: Ugly Apes Sit In A Hut
Evaluation
What stage of the community program must be continuous from the beginning of the program?
Summative
Type of evaluation that involves that outcome, measures the impact of the program AT THE END
Formative
Type of evaluation that is conducted DURING the program
Descriptive and inferential
What are the two different types of statistics?
Random
Type of selection in statistics where each element of the population has equal chance of being selected (reduces bias)
Stratified
Type of selection in statistics where selecting an element according to certain subgroups
Systemic
Type of selection in statistics where selecting the NTH participant
Judgement
Type of selection in statistics where someone familiar with the population selects the sample (high chance of bias)
Convenience
Type of selection in statistics where the sample group is chosen soley based on convenience (easiest)
Random
What is the best type of sampling in statistics?
Dependent variable
Type of variable that involves The outcome of interest; should change in response to intervention
Independent variable
Type of variable that involves the intervention; what is being manipulated
Data matrix
Arranges data scores from lowest to highest measures utilizing the statistics supplied
Frequency of Distribution
Measures how often each score occurs
Ungrouped scores
Data is presented in ascending or descending order along with the frequency of each score
Grouped scores
Grouping data into consecutive intervals
Cumulative scores
Frequency of occurrence of scores up to and including any given value in the data set
Measures of central tendency
Frequency of distribution is plotted on an x-y graph resulting in a pictorial representation of the data
Mean
Arithmatic averages of scores
Mean
What is the most common measure of central tendency?
Median
Divides the distribution of scores into two equal parts
Median
Which measure of central tendency is not affected by high or low scores
Mode
The most frequently occurring score
Normal curve
When the data is plotted and the mean, median and mode are all equal it is considered what type of curve?
Measures of dispersion
Describes how wide the scores are around a central point, in a normal curve the mean, median and mode would be the central point
Range
The difference between the high and low score of a data matrix, affected by extremely high or low scores
Standard deviation
Represents the square root of the sample variance?
Standard deviation
What is the most commonly used method of dispersion in oral hygiene?
Skewed
When scores are not uniform, the graphed data will demonstrate an asymmetrical appearance called?
Positive skew
right
When mores scores fall in the lower range the curve will have what?
So the tail would go to the?
Negative skew
Left
When more scores fall on the high range the curve will have?
So the tail would go to the?
Inferential statistics
What allows one to generalize findings from the sample study to a larger population?
Validity
Degree that a study measures the variable it is designed to measure
Reliability
The extent to which the method of measurement performs consistently
Intraexaminer reliability
Consistent performance by the SAME examiner
Interexaminer reliability
Consistent performance BETWEEN examiners
Calibration
What is the process of establishing a relationship between a measuring device and the units of measure; helps increase interexaminer reliability
Sensitivity
Ability of a test to correctly identify the PRESENCE of a disease
Way to remember: presENce and sENsitiviy
Specifity
Ability of a test to identify the ABSENCE of a disease
Correlation co-efficient
Determines the strength of a relationship between two variables
stronger
The closer the number is to either +1 or -1 the _____ the relationship
Positive correlation
Direct association between two variables (as one increases or decreases so does the other)
Negative correlation
The score on one scale predicts an opposite score on the other scale (as one increases the other decreases or as one decreases the other increases)
t-test
A statistical hypothesis test used when comparing the statistical difference between TWO mean scores
Way to remember: T=TWO
ANOVA
Analysis of variance, used when comparing the statistical differences between THREE or more scores
Way to remember: there are more than 3 letters in ANOVA
p-value
Used when testing a hypothesis, refers the the probability that a condition would happen by chance
1 out of 20 or < or equal to 0.05
What is the standard of acceptability for p-value
negatively
When the p-value is greater that 0.05 how will it affect study results?
Primary services
Involves preventative services, reverse or arrest disease before it happens
Secondary services
Treating or terminating a disease or condition to restore tissues to as normal as possible
Tertiary service
Replacing of loss tissues in order to rehabilitate patients
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*Answer each of the following as true $(T)$ or false $(F)$. Justify your answer.* If $A$ is an $n \times n$ matrix such that $A^2=O$, then $A=O$.
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