List the 3 main "air conditioning" functions of the nose and explain why each is important.
-Air is warmed -Air is humidified -Air is filtered
List the 4 main components of the nose
-Nasal cartilage and bones -External nares -Internal nares -Nasal cavity
Give an alternative name for "nostril"
Name the most cranial and caudal aspects, as well as the dorsal and ventral boundaries, of the nasal cavity.
-Rostral: The external nares -Caudal: The internal nares (choanae) -Ventral: The hard palate -Dorsal: The nasal bones
Give 2 names for the scroll-like structures within the nasal cavity and describe their function
Conchae="turbinate" bones (warm and humidify inspired air and olfactoin)
Name the 2 type of materials or substances which may pass through the pharynx and give the 3 subdivisions of the pharynx.
-Pharynx proper (area common to food and air) -Nasopharynx (rostral pharynx dorsal to the soft palate) -Oropharynx (rostal pharynx ventral to the soft palate)
Give the functions of the paranasal sinuses and name the 4 sinuses common to most species
-Frontal Sinus -Sphenoid Sinus -Ethmoid Sinus -Maxillary Sinus *Provide protection and insulation to the head *May decrease weight of the head?
Name the primary function of the larynx and describe its variable position during 1) respiration 2) eating
-"Gatekeeper" of the trachea *Main function is to regulate size of airway opening to protect it during swallowing (deglutition) *Secondary function is phonation (vocalization) 1. open at rest to allow air 2. closed during eating
Describe the anatomic location of the esophagus relative to that of the trachea.
It is dorsal
Name the specific location of the trachea which gives rise to the principal or primary bronchi
Bifurcates (divides) caudally at the carina
Name the divisions, largest to smallest, from the trachea to the alveoli