Chapter 15 and 16
Terms in this set (60)
entire array of organizations through which information is collected and disseminated to the general public (include print sources, movies, television, radio, web-based material etc)
a faction within the mass media provide the public with new information about subjects of public interest and play a vital role in the political process (ex. newspapers and blogs)
a form of newspaper publishing that featured pictures, comics, color and sensationalized news coverage. This was designed to increase readership and capture a share of the increasing immigrant population
a name developed by Theodore Roosevelt after a special rake that collected manure. This tactic was developed to expose the misconduct by government business. However this tactic had its pros because it shined light on the horrible working conditions that some people faced.
How has radio news had an effect on the public?
This allowed for people to hear the voice of their elected officials and it also allowed for some radio hosts to voice their opinion about politics. For example, conservatives have had the upper hand in controlling the radio news while liberals have struggled.
Explain the development of TV news
At first, this type of news was only given a short time frame when discussing politics, but as the years went on, more and more people decided to watch the news for the information provided about politics. Today, there has been a massive switch from network news and cable news because of the wide variety it offers people.
explain some of the pros and cons of the internet
pros: provides a wide array of information to people at a very low cost. For example, internet providers such as The New York Times and Washington Post are available for people and for free after an online registration. Many people believe that this information makes a better-informed and more active electorate
cons: Some people may argue that the internet and the technology that comes with it will only allow those with more money to enjoy the benefits of it. People are also concerned with the fact that the ability to only view CERTAIN news sources will just polarize Americans further and won't help to bridge the gap and identify the common ground.
what is the problem with blogs?
Blogs have become dominated by a small elite which does not offer the nearly 70 million other bloggers a chance to gain money and voice their opinion.
What consists of the new media?
1) the internet
3) social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter and MySpace)
Explain the concept of Media Consolidation
Although this is considered to be a mixed blessing, these multi-billion dollar for-profit businesses there is an increasing fear that should the media become dominated by a few mega-corporations, these groups could limit the flow of information and ideas that form the very essence of a free society and go with the first amendment.
targeting media programming at specific populations within society
pros: helps to promote the interests of parts of the population especially minorities who feel they are being left out
cons: it increases the chance that group members will rely on news that is appealing to their preexisting views, polarizing public opinion
ordinary individuals who collect, report, and analyze news content. Some cover topics such as school closings, town meetings, and recycling initiatives.
pros: these people are able to reach the scene of what is going on much faster than camera crews and news crews. It is also far cheaper than hiring an actual news reporter or journalist to do the work.
cons: they may not be trained in the areas that journalists are and therefore lack the proper credentials to make their information 100% accurate
on the record
everything that the journalist records during the interview will be released and attributed by name to the source
off the record
information provided to a journalist that will not be released to the public
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed t a named source.
information provided to a journalist that will not be attributed to ANY source. Especially with this way of acquiring information, it is important that reporters have to be careful of their sources wishes because they want them to keep providing them with information.
why can the government control and regulate electronic media?
1) airwaves used by the public media are considered public property and are leased by the federal government to private broadcasters
2) airwaves are in limited supply; without some regulation, the nation's many radio and television stations would interfere with one another's frequency signals.
limitations on the substance of mass media
equal time rule
rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any.
written document offering an official comment or position on an issue or news event; usually it is faxed, emailed or handed directly to the press
relatively restricted live engagement with the press, with the range of questions limited to one or two specific topics. A press secretary represents the elected official or public figure, who does not appear in person
this is a session in which an elected official answers a wide array of topics and questions that are asked by the press.
the influence of news source on public opinion and how it changes the voting preferences of some Americans
the process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government
process by which a news organization defines a political issue and consequently affects opinion about that issue
cooperative relationships that facilitate the resolution of collective problems
the tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good goes with the idea of a public interest group
a collection of people or organizations that tries to influence public policy
argument that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups. Pluralists also argue that it is important for groups to compete because it makes sure that no one group dominates another which would lead to a dominating government. They also offer government officials a choice.
interest groups form as a result of changes in the political system
ex: one wave of groups will give way to another wave of groups representing a contrary perspective
public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges among political actors.
1) it is not rational for people to mobilize into groups
2) groups that do mobilize will represent elites
things of value that may not be withheld from nonmembers, such as a better environment
population ecology theory
formation of political organizations conditional on the resources allocated to a given issue area
public interest groups
organizations that seek a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit group members
For example: progressive era groups were created by upper middle class women to solve the varied problems of new immigrants
economic interest groups
groups whose primary purpose is to promote the economic interests of their members
funds that an appropriations bill designates for specific projects within a state or congressional district
political action committee (PAC)
officially registered fund-raising organization that represents interest groups in the political process. Unlike interest groups, these do not have formal members; they simply have contributors who seek to influence public policy by electing legislators sympathetic to their aims.
interest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his or her organization or client through political and or financial persuasion
group that represents a specific industry
the activities of a group or organization that seek to persuade political leaders to support the group's position
a person who finances a group or individual activity
free rider problem
potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing the effort
honest leadership and Open Government Act of 2007
Lobbying reform banning gifts to memers of Congress and their staffs, toughenng disclosure requirements and increasing time limits on moving from the federal government to the private sector
what are the three types of economic interest groups?
1) Business groups (including trade and professional groups such as the American Medical Association)
2) Labor Organizations (AFL-CIO)
3) organizations representing the interests of farmers
explain the growth of National Groups and how they made a considerable path for the growth of interest groups
National groups emerged in the 1830s ans communications networks improved. Many of these were groups that were rooted in the Christian religion that was sweeping the nation. Many groups such as the Women's Christian temperance Union (WCTU) was created to ban the sale of liquor because they believed that it took away the paycheck from the families who needed money.
Explain the importance of the Progressive Era
This era occurred in the 1890s and lasted to the 1920's. Due t the increase in industrialization and immigration came a wave of problems including crime, poverty, squalid and unsafe working conditions. Therefore, it was essential that interest groups were formed to solve some of these problems. For example, the NAACP was created to tackle the issue of racism in the nation along with groups that wanted to discuss Women's suffrage. Progressive-era groups also had to regulate businesses
The creation of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1886 bought skilled workers from several traders together into one stronger national organization for the first time. It was also the very first national union organization that was created
Business Groups and Trade Associations
NAM (National Association of Manufacturers) was created to go against the AFL because they felt that they were losing business and that they were affected by the growth of organized labor.
Common Cause and Public Citizen
Both of these groups were created after the Vietnam War, when most people felt cynical about their government and wanted them to actually focus on what the people wanted. Common Cause: good-government group that acts as a watchdog over the federal government
Public Citizen: Collection of groups founded by Ralph Nader
What are the downsides to interest groups?
Interest groups can increase the cost of public policies. For example, if the elderly want to push more social security, it can be costly for those who do not benefit from social security. Other people argue that interest groups are only to advocate for people and their selfish interests, while others struggle to make their voice heard.
what are the pros to interest groups?
interest groups enhance the democratic process by providing increased representation and participation, they also increase public awareness of a specific topic, help frame the public agenda and monitor programs to guarantee effective implementation.
how do lobbyists lobby Congress?
lobbyists lobby Congress through congressional testimony on behalf of a group, and individual letters from interested constituents. Exhausted members of Congress often look to lobbyists to give them interesting information about their topic/ interest group. It is important that lobbyists know their information about an interest group and provide the strengths and weaknesses of their group that might engage a Congressman/woman's opinion. People find that lobbyists work most closely with representatives who share their interests.
How do lobbyists lobby the executive branch?
Lobbyists can focus on a specific branch of the executive branch rather than the entire branch. Groups try to work closely with the administration to influence policy decisions.
what are two ways one can lobby the courts?
1) amicus curiae briefs: when a case a group is interested in but not actually going to support or sponsor, the organization will file an amicus curiae brief, often with like-minded groups to inform the justices of the groups policy preferences (done in the disguise of a legal argument)
2) Direct sponsorship: providing resources (financial, human, or otherwise) to shepherd a case through the judicial system.
what do some groups do to avoid the free rider problem in order to gain members.
Groups may offer a variety of material benefits such as discounts to the members so that they will join. People may decide to join groups individually, however, to establish credibility and when policy environment appears to threaten existing rights.
Explain the Lobbying Disclosure Act
This act employed a strict definition of lobbyist and it also required lobbyists to do these three things
1) register with the clerk of the House and the secretary of the Senate
2) report their clients and issues and the agency of the house they lobbied
3) estimate the amount they are paid by each client.
the idea that groups are so strong that the government is weakened and can not function properly because the groups take over the government. These groups exhibit a great deal of power and control over specific policy areas.
people who might be members of an interest group because they share specific and similar ideas but in reality do nothing.
people who are part of an interest group and contribute
single issue groups
groups that focus on a narrow issue and dislike compromise