113 terms

Quizlet Live Modern Era Exam

This era is referred to as the Modern Era

Terms in this set (...)

_______ is a policy of exerting cultural, economic, or political influence over other societies.

Colonialism is a form of _____, but _______ includes a broader array of policies that powerful states use to influence the affairs of weaker states.
__________ is a system in which one country takes control of the political and economic affairs of another nation, and imposes policies to control the population.

Although European control of some parts of Africa lasted for hundreds of years, the majority of the continent was ______ from about 1884 to 1960.
Economic Imperialism
1. Natural Resources: Industrial demand for raw materials, such as cotton, copper, and rubber

2. New Markets: The people of African, Asia, etc were potential consumers of European manufactured goods .

3. Cheap Labor: Europeans used colonial peoples as labor for large-scale projects, such as building railroads or telegraph lines . Colonial workers were paid meager wages for difficult and dangerous labor.
Expansion of European presence in Africa
1. better military technology; 2. the discovery of quinine, a medicine that treats the tropical disease malaria; 3. the steamship; 4. the early trips of individual explorers and business owners

All of these combined increased the European presence in Africa
Export Economies
Colonies were turned into ________, which meant that the goods they produced were not meant for domestic use but sent to colonial powers to sell for profit.
cash crops
crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit
Indentured laborers
Laborers who in exchange for passage agreed to work for a number of years, specified in the contract.
-Britain colonized ___________ in late 1700s as a penal colony
Political imperialism
In this form of imperialism, the dominant country uses diplomacy or military force to influence the internal affairs of a weaker nation.
Scramble for Africa (1880-1914)
Between 1880 and 1914 Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and Italy, worried that they would not get "a piece of that magnificent African cake", scrambled for African possessions as if their national livelihoods were at stake. In 1880 Europeans controlled barely 20 percent of the African continent, mainly along the coast; by 1914 they controlled over 90 percent. Only Ethiopia in northeast Africa and Libera on the West African coast remained independent.
permanent moves to new locations that have occurred on local, regional, and global levels.
Ideological Motivations for Imperialism
White racists ' condescending attitudes toward the "darker comers of the earth (Theodore Roosevelt, 1909) was not a reason for imperialism, but a justification for it.
Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
Fought in Korea between Japan and China; Japanese victory demonstrated its arrival as new industrial power.
Scientific Racism
The use of scientific theories to support or validate racist attitudes or worldviews; also, to support classification of human beings into distinct biological races
Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism
Misapplication to human society of Charles Darwin's laws of evolution and natural selection among species. Believed only fittest individuals survived and flourished in the marketplace.

Herbert Spencer- first and most important... had prominent American intellectual supporters
Missonaries (Ideological Imperialism)
Missionaries were sometimes criticized as supporters of imperialism.

Because they tried to persuade people to give up their own sacred beliefs and adopt the faith common among Westerners, missionaries sometimes paved the way for others who were more focused on economic gain .
White Man's Burden
The idea that it is the responsibility of people of European descent to take care of people of other races due to their perceived superior culture, technology, government, etc.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Suez Canal
A human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
Boer War
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
British East India Company
British joint-stock company that grew to be a state within a state in India; it possessed its own armed forces
Mughal Empire
1526-1858 CE. In India was the first to unite almost the entire subcontinent. The early empire established a policy of religious tolerance where Hindus and Muslims could openly practice. Ended by 1700 when Muslims began to persecute Hindus.
real architect of the Mughal Empire; grandson of Babur; reigned 1556-1605; brilliant and charismatic ruler; created a centralized, absolutist government; expanded Mughal empire into Gujarat, Bengal, and southwestern India; encourages religious toleration of Hindus and Muslims
Aurangzeb (1658-1707)
Later Mughal Emperor (1658-1707). Less-tolerant than predecessors: under him, Islamic law because state law. Destroyed Hindu temples and banned music in court.
entering by gradual steps or by stealth into the possessions or rights of another.
Indian Elites and British Rule
The British discouraged local rulers who were under their influence to restrain from attacking their neighbors and as a result, the level of violence in the country began to decline.

With the growing stability trade and economic activity increased over years of decline and this ensured that many local elites cooperated with the British.
After 1858 when India became a British colony, it came to be used as a generic term to describe all of India's kings, but both Hindu and Muslim rulers were also known by other titles including maharana, maharao, nawab, and nizam.
Taj Mahal
A great Mughal monument: a white marble mausoleum in Agra, northern India, completed in 1643 in memory of Mumtaz Mahal, the wife of Mughal. emperor Shah Jahan. It is considered the greatest example of Mughal architecture.
Indian troops who served the British.
Sepoy Rebellion
Known as India's First War of Independence, it was a rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India in the mid-nineteenth century
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government.
British imperialism and Sati
At the end of the 18th Century, the influx of Europeans into India meant that the practice of sati was being scrutinized as never before; missionaries, travelers and civil servants alike condemned official Raj tolerance of the "dreadful practice" and called for its end.

In 1827 the Governor-General of India, Lord Bentinck, finally outlawed the custom in its entirety, claiming it had no sound theological basis.
Manchurians who conquered China, putting an end to the Ming dynasty and founding the Qing dynasty (1644-1911).
McCartney Mission of 1793
a delegation headed by George Mccartney sent by the British government to open more trade between China and Britain.
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Spheres of Influence
An area of one country under the control of another. In China, these areas guaranteed specific trading privileges to each imperialist nation within its respective sphere.
Treaty of Nanking
A. increased the number of ports open to foreigners from one (Canton) to five and the island of Hong Kong became a long-term British colony.

B. British residents in China gained extraterritorial rights, which meant that they could live and conduct business under British laws rather than Chinese laws.
unequal treaties
Series of treaties that forced trade concessions from the Qing dynasty of China, particularly after their defeat in the Opium War, specifically with the Treaty of Nanjing.
Boxer Rebellion (1899-1900)
• An internal rebellion led by a group known as the Boxers, who unsuccessfully sought to rid China of foreign influence
• The Boxers had imperial support for their efforts, which included attacking and killing foreigners and Chinese Christians
• Following their attempt to gain control of foreign embassies in Beijing, foreign forces moved quickly to put down the rebellion
Self-Strengthening Movement
Chinese attempt (1860-1895) to blend Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology.
Hundred Days of Reform
Chinese reforms of 1898 led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao in their desire to turn China into a modern industrial power.
Taiping Rebellion
(1850-1864)The most destructive civil war in China before the twentieth century.

A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. Leader claimed to be the brother of Jesus.

Indicative of the Qing Dynasty failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
Berlin Conference
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. This began the process of imperializing Africa.
African Political Division (Pre-Imperialism)
Politically Africa was divided into many tribal communities. The Europeans did not face an organized, centralized African empire (like China) which helped them expand into and politically control Africa.
Impact of Partition on Africa
The boundary lines that eventually separated colonial territories were based on European concerns, not on African history or culture.

The disruption of traditional tribal boundary lines worked to the Europeans' advantage because it was difficult for the native Africans to organize an opposition within each colony.
Suez canal
A ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs; protectorates are established by treaty.
Monroe Doctrine
• The _____ _______ indicated that attempts by Europe to take control of land in the Americas would be viewed as a hostile act and that, in theory, the United States would respond
Spanish-American War (1898-1899)
• The United States quickly defeated the Spanish and gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
• The United States emerged as an imperial power
U.S. Open Door Policy
• U.S. foreign policy that south equal trading rights for all nations trading in China and commercial advantages for U.S. business
• Proposed by Secretary of State John Hay in 1899 because the United States was one of the few imperial powers that did not have a sphere of influence in China
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.
Boer Wars
These wars took place after the discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa renewed conflicts over land between Boers, English settlers and African natives; Boers were used to describe settlers of Dutch extractions in South Africa.
Imperialism: Labor Migrations
In order to more efficiently make use of the natural resources they found all over the globe, imperialist countries encouraged people to migrate to areas where their labor was most needed.
having supreme, independent authority over a territory
This political ideology arose as a result of the spread of Enlightenment-era thought. _______ supports the rights and freedoms of the individual and seeks to limit the powers of the government.
This economic system relies on private ownership of capital and goods and the influence of the market to shape economic factors such as prices and wages. _________ has dominated Western economic practice since the end of feudalism.
In the eighteenth century, a new group of thinkers and writers who came to be called the ___________ explored social, political, and economic theories in new ways, popularizing concepts that they felt followed rationally upon those of the scientific thinkers of the seventeenth century.
Atlantic Revolutions
1775-1825, many areas of the Atlantic world (North America, South America, Haiti and parts of Europe) had political revolutions - in the Americas, new states were created as colonists fought for independence from European colonial powers, and in Europe, the French Revolution initiated a decade of change in which France uses Enlightenment ideas.
Mercantilism (cause of American Revolution)
_________ is when colonial countries (Britain) set policies designed to sell as many goods as they could to other countries-in order to maximize the amount of gold and silver coming into the country and to buy as few as possible from other countries
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens. Example of enlightenment thinking, similar to US Declaration of Independence.
Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
Ten-month period of brutal repression when some 40,000 individuals were executed as enemies of the French Revolution.
French Revolution and Nationalism
Nationalism increased in France and in other areas of Europe and in the Americas .

Nationalism would contribute to the French people's willingness to support the 1 799 coup led by the young general Napoleon, himself one of the directors of the new government.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

French Revolution results in one-man government, not a successful democratic transition when compared to American Revolution
Similarities between the French and American Revolutions
Both want a change from being ruled by an absolute ruler, both have economic instability from war debt, both have social inequality. And also, both started because of enlightenment ideas.
French control in Haiti (cause Haitian Revolution)
The French, who were outnumbered 10:1 by their slaves in Haiti, lived in constant fear of a revolution. To prevent them from organizing resistance movements, the owners tried to keep slaves of the same tribes apart; forbade any meetings of slaves at all; tied slaves to their own plantations, and used brutal forms of punishment to keep the slaves under control.
Napoleonic Code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property.
Balance of Power
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
Was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti; in a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797.
Haitian Revolution (results)
Haiti became the first country in Latin
America to win its independence and the first postcolonial, independent, black-led country in the world. It was also the only country to become permanently independent as a result of a slave uprising .
Term for a nineteenth-century escaped slave in the Americas who settled in his or her own settlement away from plantations. They caused tensions with the colonial authorities. This term can also be used to describe their present-day descendants.
Gran Colombia
Simon Bolivar led revolts in South America and by 1824 deposed the Spanish armies. His goal was to establish a United States of Latin America, called _____________, but it did not last.
Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
Descendents of Spanish-born but born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.

Zionists faced many obstacles . In particular, the land they wanted was controlled by the Ottoman Empire , and Palestinian Arabs were already living in the region.
A process of removing institutions such as education and government from the dominance or influence of religion.
The term __________ refers not only to the increased mechanization of production, but also to the social changes that accompanied this shift.
factory system
This system of manufacturing concentrates labor in a large, specialized location known as a factory: The ____ ______ developed as part of the Industrial Revolution and contributed to increased specialization of labor.
specialization of labor
_______ relies on the repetition of one particular-often unskilled-job by a worker rather than a number of related skilled tasks. The goal of ______ is to increase productivity, or the amount of work a single worker will accomplish. As part of the mass production and factory systems, _____ increased during the Industrial Revolution.
mass production
This system of production relied on specialization, division of labor, and interchangeable parts to manufacture standardized goods on a large scale. The rise of _______ _______ characterized the Industrial Revolution and had far-reaching effects on the global economy and society
steam power
This type of power is created by heating water to generate steam which raises internal pressure within an engine and creates power. The emergence of ____ ____ in the 18th century helped increase industrial production and modernize transportation
combustion engine
This type of engine combines oxygen and fuel, such as gasoline, to create energy. The emergence of the internal combustion engine in the 19th century allowed the use of fossil fuels, which helped power the Industrial Revolution
private property
This term describes land or goods held exclusively by individuals or groups rather than owned by the government or society at large.
This economic and political theory, promoted by Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill and strongly associated with capitalism, holds that government should have minimal involvement in economic affairs.
Family Life and Industrialization
Both women and children became part of the work force, albeit at lower wages, and in more dangerous conditions than their male counterparts.

Home and work were no longer centered in the same space.
This phenomenon describes the movement of people from rural areas to cities, often in search of economic opportunities. Increased ______ was closely linked to the Industrial Revolution
fossil fuels
These are organic, carbon-based fuels found in Earth's crust that have formed over millions of years. Fossil fuels such as coal and oil are important energy sources. The use of ___ ___ helped power the Industrial Revolution.
a social and economic order that is based on the systematic creation and fostering of a desire to purchase goods or services in ever greater amounts.
These organizations of workers emerged during the 19th century as a reaction to exploitative capitalist practices.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences. Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; had new forms of art - kabuki and geishas
Matthew Perry
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.
Black Ships
These were the ships on which Commodore Perry travelled. They were known as black ships as they were fuelled by coal, and this coal let up thick black smoke (which also blackened the sails). Many Japanese at the time thought these ships were dragons.
Meiji Restoration
Restoration of the ______ to the throne in Japan; beginning of industrialization in Japan; improved transportation, education and communication
Sino-Japanese War
(1894-1895) Japan's imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became Japan's protectorate.
The theory and practice of government under the Russian czars, notably those of the Romanov dynasty from 1614-1917.
Trans-Siberian Railroad
The construction of this railroad was among the Russian government's efforts to encourage rapid industrialization during the late 19th century.
Russo-Japanese War
This conflict from 1904 to 1905 between the Russian and Japanese empires happened after Russia attempted to expand into Japanese territory in East Asia. Japan soundly defeated Russia, ending Russian expansionist efforts in that region. Japan emerged with increased prestige for having defeated a perceived Western power Russo-Japanese War
emancipation of serfs
1861 by Czar Alexander II - most ambitious attempt at reform in Russia during 1800s - some government officials began to think that Russia could develop economically only if serfdom were abolished
Alexander II
Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
Crimean War
This conflict took place from 1853 to 1856 as Russia battled combined British, French, and Ottoman Turk forces on the Crimean Peninsula.

Russia's relatively weak military and technology led to its defeat, which encouraged the empire to begin efforts to modernize.
emancipation of serfdom
This happened in Russia in 1861, thereby marking the end of Russian feudalism and the spread of industrialization. The end of serfdom reflected the influence of Enlightenment ideas of freedom and liberty.
This political and economic system, developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, opposes private property, views capitalism as exploitive, and views class struggle as the dominant force behind social and historical change.
A social class that derives social and economic power from employment, education, and wealth, as opposed to the inherited power of aristocratic family of titled land owners or feudal privileges.
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
class struggle
Marxist belief that the upper-class bourgeois oppressed the working-class proletariat in a struggle that will eventually lead to revolution
Form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
Italian unification
During 1848, Italy was separated into many states, Nationalism drove efforts to unite the Italian people into one political state
Ottoman Empire
Powerful Turkish empire that lasted from the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 until 1918 and reached its peak during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent (r.1520-1566).
Young Turks
Society founded in 1889 in the Ottoman Empire; its goal was to restore the constitution of 1876 and to reform the
empire; Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform.
Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856 (Hatt-i Humayun)
The decree from Sultan Abdülmecid I promised equality in education, government appointments, and administration of justice to all regardless of religious creed.
19th century Europeans who lived in China were subject their own laws but not Chinese laws.