Terms in this set (43)
AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ACT (Recovery)
Created in 1933, he AAA paid farmers for not planting crops in order to reduce surpluses, increase demand for seven major farm commodities, and raise prices. Farm income rose, but many tenants and share-croppers were pushed into the ranks of the unemployed. In 1936 the Supreme Court voided the AAA.
CIVIL WORKS ADMINISTRATION (Relief)
Created in 1933, the CWA employed four million people--paid an average of $15 a week--many in useful construction jobs such as repairing schools, laying sewer pipes, building roads. Some CWA jobs, however, were criticized as useless (e.g., leaf raking). Roosevelt disbanded the program after less than a year.
FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION (Relief)
The FSA was created in 1937 (formerly called the Resettlement Administration in 1935) to aid sharecroppers. The FSA set up temporary housing for "Okies" and "Arkies" (Dust Bowl refugees from Oklahoma and Arkansas) who migrated to California in hope of finding work.
FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORP. (Reform)
To restore confidence in banks and encourage savings, Congress created the FDIC to insure bank customers against the loss of up to $5,000 their deposits if their bank should fail. Created by the Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act of 1933, the FDIC is still in existence.
FEDERAL EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMIN. (Relief)
Created in 1933, FERA supported nearly five million households each month and funded thousands of work projects for the unemployed. It also provided vaccinations and literacy classes for millions of poor people.
FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (Recovery)
The FHA was created in 1934 to stimulate the building industry by providing small loans for home construction. A related program, also created in 1934, was the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC).
INDIAN REORGANIZATION ACT (Reform)
The Indian Removal Act of 1934 (called the "Indian New Deal, reversed the forced-assimilation policies in effect since the Dawes Act of 1887. The IRA tried to stop the loss of Indian lands and encouraged Native American tribes to establish local self-government and to preserve their native crafts and traditions.
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT (Reform)
The NLRA (also called the Wagner Act) of 1935 created the National Labor Relations Board to protect the rights or organized labor to organize and collectively bargain with employers.
NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION (Recovery)
The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 created the NRA to promote economic recovery by ending wage and price deflation and restoring competition. The NRA set business codes and quotas. Under its symbol of a blue eagle and slogan ("We Do Our Part"), the NRA temporarily restored investor confidence and consumer morale, but it failed to stimulate industrial production. In 1935 the Supreme Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional.
NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION (Relief)
Created under the Emergency Relief Act of 1935, the NYA provided more than 4.5 million jobs for young people.
PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATION (Relief/Recovery)
Established by the NIRA in 1933, the PWA was intended both for industrial recovery and unemployment relief. Eventually over $4 billion was spent on 34,000 construction projects including public buildings, highways, bridges (e.g., San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge), and dams for water and power.
RURAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION (Reform)
Before the New Deal, only 10 percent of the country outside cities and towns had electricity. The REA (1935) gave low-cost loans to farm cooperatives to bring power into their communities. By 1941, the REA succeeded in raising to 40 percent the number of farms with electricity.
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (Reform)
The SEC was created in 1934 to serve as a federal "watchdog" administrative agency to protect public and private investors from stock market fraud, deception and insider manipulation on Wall Street. The SEC is still in existence [its reputation was tarnished a bit by the Enron collapse in 2001-02].
SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION (Reform)
The Social Security Act of 1935 established the SSA to administer a national pension fund for retired persons, an unemployment insurance system, and public assistance programs for dependent mothers, children, and the physically disabled. The pension was financed by a payroll tax to begin in 1937. It exists to this day as the nation's most important and expensive domestic program, covering over 40 million Americans and accounting for about one-fourth of the federal budget.
TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY (Reform)
Perhaps the most ambitious undertaking of the New Deal, the TVA was a comprehensive federal agency created in 1933 for the economic development of the Tennessee River watershed. The TVA built twenty dams to control flooding, generate hydroelectrical power, increase agricultural production, and revitalize the Tennessee Valley region. The TVA also provided jobs, low-cost housing, reforestation and other services.
The Brain Trust
Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.
March 1933; Roosevelt closed all banks and forbade the export of gold or redemption of currency in gold.
informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people
Schechter v. U.S.
May, 1935 - The U.S. Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. It held that Congress had improperly delegated legislative authority to the National Industrial Recovery Administration and that the federal government had exceeded its jurisdiction because Schecter was not engaged in interstate commerce.
was one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country.
Social Security Act
Social Security Act of 1935 created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people's working careers.
Father Charles Coughlin
Anti-New Deal Catholic Priest; began broadcasting in 1930; called the "microphone messiah"; slogan was "Social Justice"; silenced in 1942 when his broadcasts became too radical.
American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
The Economy act
This act passed March 20th of 1933 gave FDR the power to cut government workers' salaries and reduce payments to military veterans for non-service-connected disabilities as well as having the ability to reorganize federal agencies in the interest of reducing expenses. This expanded the role of the presidency more then any other act prior to it..
The Banking act
1933, created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation which insured bank deposits. Response to the banks runs during the Great Depression.
Financial Securities act
Requires promotors to make the financial information about stock issues open to the public
Gold Reserve act
Ends nation dependence on the gold standard. Start using a currency standard
creates the Securities Exchange Act which required all stock exchanges to obtain licenses; and had the power to register securities
Glass Stegal Banking Reform act
eased tight credit by accepting a wide variety of collateral
REA (Rural Electrification Administration)
Loaned money to electric utility companies to supply power to rural areas.
NLR (National Labor Relations/Wagner Act)
Outlawed unfair labor practices and gave workers the right to organize unions
NYA (National Youth Administration)
Trained and provided jobs for 16-25-year olds
Fair Labor Standards Act
Banned child labor, created a minimum wage, and limited workweeks to 44 hours.
Food Drug Cosmetic Act
Prohibited the mislabeling of food, drugs, and cosmetic
CIO (Congress of Industrial Organization)
Union of industrial workers
UAW (United Automobile Workers)
Union of Automobile Workers (Staged a 40-day sit-down strike at General Motors branch and refused to leave until recognized)
first female Sec. of Labor
Mary McCloude Bethune
founded the Bethune-Cookman College, and was head of the Division of Negro Affairs in NYA, National Youth Administration . Also African American CCC.
Native American advocate with American Indian Defense Association in 1933. His efforts reversed a significant decline in Native American rights and land loss.
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
A U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans. These include a reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.
Stimpson Standstill Doctrine
set up embargoes against aggressor nations
a strong isolationist and focused against the Merchants of Death in WWI or the munitions manufacturers, like the DuPont Company.
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