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177 terms

Lesson 4 Word List

Chapters 8 & 23
STUDY
PLAY
absence seizure
a small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness, lasting only a few seconds
affect
observable evidence of a person's feelings or emotions
agnosia
loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli even though the sensory organs themselves are functioning properly
agraphia
the inability to convert one's thoughts into writing
alexia
the inability to understand written words
Alzheimer's Disease
a progressive and debilitating beginning with memory loss and progresses to complete loss of mental, emotional, an physical functioning
amnesia
loss of memory caused by severe emotional trauma, brain injury, substance abuse, or reaction to medications or toxins
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a.k.a. Lou Gehrig Disease)
a severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups caused by decreased nerve innervation to the muscle groups
aneurysm
a localized dilatation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery
anxiety disorder
a disorder characterized by chronic worry
aphasia
the inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the brain
apraxia
the inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly
astrocytoma
a tumor of the b rain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes
ataxia
without muscular coordination
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
a condition of persistent inattention and hyperactivity, impulsivity, or both
aura
the sensation an individual experiences prior to the onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure
Babinski's reflex
is tested by stroking the sole of the foot beginning at midheel and moving upward an lateral to the toes
Bell's palsy
temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknown infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve
bipolar disorder aka manic depressive
a psychological disorder characterized by episodes of mania, depression, alternating between the two, or a mixture of the two moods simultaneously
bradykinesia
abnormally slow movement
brain abscess
an accumulation of pus located anywhere in the brain tissue due to an infectious process
brain scan
a nuclear counter scanning of cranial contents two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes
carpal tunnel syndrome
pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation or swelling of the tendons
causalgia
a sensation of an acute burning pain along the path of a peripheral nerve due to an injury to peripheral nerve fibers
cephalalgia
pain in the head; headache
cerebral angiography
visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray after the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel
cerebral concussion
a brief interruption of brain function, usually with loss of consciousness lasting a few seconds
cerebral contusion
small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain
cerebral palsy
a collective term used to describe congenital brain damage that is permanent but not progressive
cerebrospinal fluid analysis
cerebrospinal fluid that is obtained from a lumbar puncture is analyzed for the presence of bacteria, blood, or malignant cells as well as the amount of protein and glucose present
cerebrovascular accident (a.k.a. stroke)
death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow to that area of the brain
Cheyne-stokes respirations
an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by periods of apnea followed by deep, rapid breathing
chordotomy
a neurosurgical procedure for pain control accomplished through a laminectomy in which there is surgical interference of pathways within the spinal cord that control pain
cisternal puncture
the insertion of a short, beveled spinal needle into the cisterna magna to drain CSF or to obtain a CSF specimen
cluster headache
a headache occurring typically 2 or 3 hours after falling asleep
coma
a deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli
comatose
pertains to being in a coma
contracture
an abnormal, usually permanent bending of a joint into a fixed position
craniotomy
a surgical incision into the cranium or skull
CT scan of the brain
the analysis of a three dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as x-ray beams pass through successive horizontal layers of the brain
degenerative disk
deterioration of the intervertebral disk, due to constant motion and wearing of the disk
delirium
a state of frenzied excitement
dementia
a progressive, organic mental disorder characterized by chronic personality disintegration, confusion, disorientation, stupor, deterioration of intellectual capacity and function, and impairment of control of memory, judgment, and impulses
depression
a mood disturbance characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, discouragement, and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion with reality
diplopia
double vision
dissociative identity disorder
a disorder in which there is apresence of two or more distinct personalities within one individual
dyslexia
a condition characterized by an impairment of the ability to read
dysphasia
difficult speech
echoencephalography
ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain
electroconvulsive therapy
the process of passing an electrical current through the brain to create a brief seizure in the brain
electroencephalography
measurement of electrical activity produced by brain and recorded through electrodes placed on the scalp
electromyography
the process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulat3ed by an electrical current
embolism
an abnormal condition in which a blood clot becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood within the vessel
encephalitis
inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue
epilepsy
a syndrome of recurring episodes of excessive irregular electrical activity of the central nervous sytem called seizures
generalized anxiety disorder
a disorder characterized by chronic, unrealistic, and excessive anxiety and worry
grand mal seizure
an epileptic seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, and generalized involuntary muscular contraction, vacillating between rigid body extension and an alternating contracting and relaxing of muscles
Guillain-Barré syndrome
acute polyneuritis of the peripheral nervous system in which the myelin sheaths of the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses, loss of reflex response, and sudden muscle weakness
headaches
a diffuse pain in different portions of the head and not confined to any nerve distribution area
hemiparesis
slight or partial paralysis of one half of the body
hemiplegia
paralysis of one-half of the body
hemorrhage
a loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time
herniated disk
rupture of herniation of the disk center through the disk wall and into the spinal canal, causing pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots
herpes zoster (a.k.a. shingles)
an acute viral infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox characterized by painful, vesicular lesions or eruptions on the skin following along the nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves
Huntington's chorea
an inherited neurological disease characterized by rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons
hydrocephalus
an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that caused the ventricles of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanel(s)
hyperesthesia
excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli
hyperkinesis
excessive muscular movement and physical activity
hypnosis
a passive, trancelike state of existence that resembles normal sleep during which perception and memory are altered, resulting in increased responsiveness to suggestion
hypochondriasis
a chronic, abnormal concern about the health of the body, characterized by extreme anxiety, depression, and an unrealistic interpretation of real or imagined physical symptoms as indications of a serious illness or disease despite rational medical evidence that no disorder is present
intracranial tumors
occur in any structural region of the brain and may be malignant or benign classified as primary or secondary, and are named according to the tissue from which they originate
Kernig's sign
a diagnostic sign for meningitis marked by the person's inability to extend the leg completely when the thigh s flexed upon the abdomen and the person is sitting or lying down
kinesiology
the study of muscle movement
laminectomy
the surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more vertebrae in order to relieve pressure from the spinal cord
lethargy
a state of being sluggish, indifferent, apathetic
lumbar puncture
insertion of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space
major depressive disorder
a disorder characterized by one or more episodes of depressed mood that lasts at least 2 weeks and is accompanied by at least four additional symptoms of at least four additional symptoms of depression
malingering
a willful and deliberate faking of symptoms of a disease or injury to gain some consciously desired end
meningitis
a serious bacterial infection of the meninges that can have residual debilitting effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy
meningocele
a cyst-like sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae containing meninges
meningomyelocele
a cyst-like sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae that contains meninges, CSF, and spinal cord segments
metastatic intracranial tumors
tumors occurring as a result of metastasis from a primary site
migraine
a recurring, pulsating, vascular headache usually developing on one side of the head
magnetic resonance imaging
a strong magnetic field and radio-frequency waves used to produce imaging that is valuable in providing images without the use of radiation
multiple sclerosis
a degenerative inflammatory disease of the central nervous system attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it hardened or scarred
Munchausen syndrome (by proxy)
a somewhat rare form of child abuse in which a parent of a child falsifies an illness in a child by fabricating or creating the symptoms, and then seeks medical care for the child
myasthenia gravis
a chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder and autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites causing sever skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue
myelography
introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture in order to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral column through x-ray examination
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder that is characterized by a repeated, uncontrollable desire to sleep, often several times a day
nerve block
an injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensations to the area supplied by the nerve(s)
neuralgia
severe, sharp-like pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves
neurectomy
a neurosurgical procedure to relieve pain in a localized or small area by incision of cranial or peripheral nerves
neuritis
inflammation of a nerve
neuroblastoma
a highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system
nuchal rigidity
rigidity of the neck
obsessive-compulsive disorder
a disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are severe enough to be time consuming or to cause obvious distress or a notable handicap
occlusion
closure, or state of being closed
palliative
to soothe or relieve
panic disorder
a disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks that come on unexpectedly
paraparesis
a slight weakness or paralysis of both legs
paraplegia
paralysis of the lower extremities
paresthesia
a sensation of numbness or tingling
Parkinson's disease
a degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system, characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms
peripheral neuritis
a general term indicating inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves, the effects being dependent upon the particular nerve involved
petit mal seizure
small seizures in which there is a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness, lasting only a few seconds
pneumoencephalography
a process used to radiographically visualize one to radiographically visualize one of the ventricles or fluid occupying spaces in the central nervous system
poliomyelitis
an infectious viral disease entering through the upper respiratory tract and affecting the ability of the spinal cord and brain motor neurons to receive stimulation
polysomnogram
a sleep study that evaluates physical factors affecting sleep
positron emission tomography
a computerized x-ray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures
posttraumatic stress disorder
a disorder in which the individual experiences characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extremely traumatic event
primary intracranial tumors
arise from the gliomas, malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue, and tumors that are from the meninges
psychosis
any major mental disorder of organic or emotional characterized by a loss of contact with reality
quadriplegia
follows severe trauma to the spinal cord between the fifth and eighth cervical vertebra, generally resulting in loss of motor and sensory function below the level of the injury
radiculotomy (a.k.a. rhizotomy)
the surgical resection of a spinal nerve root
Reye's syndrome
acute brainencephalopathy along with fatty infiltration of the internal organs that may follow acute viral infections
Romberg test
used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance
schizophrenia
any of a large group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross distortion of reality, disturbances of language and communication, withdrawal from social interaction, and the disorganization and fragmentation of thought, perception, and emotional reaction
sciatica
inflammation of the sciatic nerve
shunt
a tube or passage that diverts or redirects body fluid from one cavity or vessel to another
skull fracture, depressed
a broken segment of the skull bone thrust into the brain as a result of a direct force
spina bifida cystica
a congenital defect of the central nervous system in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back
spina bifida occulta
a congenital defect of the central nervous system in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed normally and a cyst protrudes through the opening in the back
spinal cord injuries
severe injuries to the spinal cord
stereotaxic neurosurgery
on a precise location of an area within the brain that controls specific function(s) and may involve destruction of brain tissue with various agents such as heat, cold, and sclerosing or corrosive fluids
stupor
a state of lethargy
sympathectomy
a surgical procedure used to interrupt a portion of the sympathetic nerve pathway, for the purpose of relieving chronic pain
syncope
fainting
tension headache
a headache that occurs from long, endured contraction of the skeletal muscles around the face, scalp, upper back, and neck
thrombosis
an abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel
tonic clonic seizure
a seizure characterized by the presence of muscle contraction or tension followed by relaxation, creating a "jerking" movement of the body
tractotomy
through a craniotomy the anterolateral pathway in the brain stem is surgically divided in an attempt to relieve pain
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
a form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site
transient ischemic attack
brief periods of ischemia in the brain lasting from minutes to hours
trigeminal neuralgia
short periods of severe unilateral pain, which radiates along the fifth cranial nerve
whiplash
an injury to the cervical vertebrae and their supporting structures due to a sudden back-and-forth, jerking movement to the head and neck
a-
without, not
an-
without, not
-algesia
sensitivity to pain
alges/o
sensitivity to pain
brady-
slow
-algia
pain
cerebell/o
cerebellum
cerebr/o
cerebrum
crani/o
skull, cranium
encephal/o
brain
-esthesia
sensation or feeling
esthesi/o
feeling, sensation
gli/o
neuroglia or gluey substance
-kinesia
movement
kinesi/o
movement
-lepsy
seizure, attack
-lexia
reading
mening/o
meninges
myel/o
spinal cord or bone marrow
narc/o
sleep
neur/o
nerve
-paresis
partial paralysis
-phasia
speech
-plegia
paralysis
-praxia
perform
-sthenia
strength
thec/o
sheath
ton/o
tension, tone
ventricul/o
ventricle of the heart or the brain
cata-
down, under, against, lower
hypn/o
sleep
-iatrist
one who treats; a physician
-mania
a mental disorder; a 'madness'
ment/o
mind
neur/o
nerves
phil/o
attraction to
-phobia
abnormal fear
psych/o
mind
-phoria
emotional state
schiz/o
split, divided
somat/o
body
-thymia
condition of the mind or will