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2.6 Preschool Semantic Developement
Terms in this set (26)
Preschool period involves rapid lexical and concept acquisition
Preschoolers add approximately 5 words to his/her lexicon a day between ages 1.5 to 6 years.
How are preschoolers learning new words?
More words composed of low-probability sounds and sound pairs
•Shorter words with higher neighborhood density
•Words that are semantically related to each other
In general what'd o preschooler's know what when it comes to learning words?
How else are preschoolers learning new words?
Strong relationship between frequency of mothers' use of words at 16 months and the age at which a child produces a word More frequent words are produced earlier
What is word frequency?
Dividing words into phonemes and morphemes
•Simplified when caregivers place new words in highly salient or easily noticeable positions
•Final position in an utterance ("That is a lion, and this is a leopard.")
•Shorter utterances ("A leopard has spots.")
What is word segmentation?
Initial word-meaning relationship based on limited (or first-time) exposure
•Initial exposure is receptive in nature ("That is a lion and this is a leopard.")
Initial learning is affected by world and word knowledge
•World knowledge: type of big cat, like a lion, has spots, no big hairy mane
•Word knowledge: l + e + p +er + d (CVCVC)
•Nouns seem easier to fast map than verbs
What is fast mapping?
A low neighborhood density supports better fast mapping, true or false?
Drink, mink, kink, think
What are some examples of low density neighborhood words?
Cap, can, sat, rat mat, cab, car
What are some examples of high density neighborhood words?
changes from high to low phonotactic probability advantage
What are phonotactic probabilities?
Mom says: "Bring me the turquoise tray not the blue one."
Assume Mom is trying to communicate with me.
2.Unknown word is used in reference to tray, as a descriptor.
3.Major observable difference between the trays is color.
4.So, turquoise must be a color.
5.One tray is blue.
6.Mom does not want the blue tray, or she would've asked for it.
7.Therefore, she must want the other blue tray, which is turquoise in color.
What is a general thought process a child goes through to figure out the meaning of a new word?
Superordinate categories - "a car is a type of vehicle" or "a mouse is a type of animal"
•Relationship to other entities - "an elephant is much larger than a dog"
•Metaphorical uses - "suspicious things are called 'fishy'"
•Internal constituents - "a seed is inside an apple"
•Origins - "chickens hatch from eggs"
What are ways children are unable to define nouns?
Physical properties - shape, size, color
•Functional properties (what the entity does)
•Locational properties - "on the tree" or "at the beach"
How do children successfully define nouns?
Who or what does the action
•To what or whom it's done
•Where, when and with what it's done
How do preschoolers successfully define verbs?
How or why the action is done
•A description of the process
How do preschoolers struggle to define verbs?
When gaps exist in vocabulary, either because they've forgotten or not learned a term, preschoolers will invent words...and they will use appropriate lexical devices to do so
Ex: "My foot has a headache?"
What a re relational terms: location and times?
•amount of adult usage in a child's environment
•the underlying cognitive concept
How is order of acquisition influenced?
2. Who, Whose, Which
3. When, How, Why
4. cause, manner, time
What is the order of acquisition of receptive and expressive interrogatives?
•In, on, to, under by age 3
•Above, below, in front of, at the bottom of
What are relational terms?
What a re temporal relations?
children will rely on real-life sequences OR use the order of mention to determine the order...even if this is not correct:
** Bring me your cup before you go upstairs.
** Before you go upstairs, bring me your cup.
** After you bring me your cup, go upstairs.
** Go upstairs after you bring me your cup.
Tall/short, long, short
What is the order of acquisition in physical relations?
Mother, father, sister, brother
Son, daughter, grandfather, grandmother, parent
Uncle, aunt, cousin, nephew, niece
What is the order of acquisition kinship terms?
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