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WHAP Era 6 Vocab
Terms in this set (73)
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
Information from the government to sway the public's opinion. America used this method to try to encourage people to go to war and step up and help. Posters, signs, banners, and TV commercials were made to help this.
A war fought from 1914 to 1918 between the Allies, notably Britain, France, Russia, and Italy (which entered in 1915), and the Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Turkish Genocide of Armenians
the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930 that Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal hoped to end
A war fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Axis powers — Germany, Italy, and Japan — and the Allies, including France and Britain, and later the Soviet Union and the United States.
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945), Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust
1930-1945; Radical nationalist societies different from other radical European parties because there was no single encompassing group; young Japanese men yearned for the return of the imperial rule of the emperor
Germany, Italy, Japan
Britain, France, and Russia- Later joined by Italy
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
European Economic Community
An economic organization established in 1957 to reduce tariff barriers and promote trade among the countries of Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, France, Italy, and West Germany. These countries became the original members of the European Community in 1965.
an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries; North Atlantic Treaty Organization
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
The revolution against the Tsarist government by the Bolsheviks which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917.
Group led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
Chinese communist party. Founded in 1921 and came to power in 1949. It is the ruling party for the people's republic of China.
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Dictator of the Soviet Union after Lenin; led the SU through World War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war
Women's Department of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1930; Zhenotdel worked strongly to promote equality for women
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
(1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
Also called the Terror, the Great Purges of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to cleanse the Soviet Union of supposed "enemies of the people"; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and 4 million or 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in the gulag.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Communist Party leader who seen as responsible for Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976.
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
Great revolutionary who led India to independence from Great Britain through passive resistance and civil disobedience based upon Henry David Thoreau's doctrines.
"Truth force," a term used by Gandhi to describe peaceful boycotts, strikes, noncooperation, and mass demonstrations to promote Indian independence.
an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations
Indian statesman who was the founder of Pakistan as a Muslim state (1876-1948)
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910.
African National Congress
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought greater equality.
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
South African movement that sought to foster pride, unity, and political awareness among the country's African majority and often resorted to violent protest against white minority rule.
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent uprising in 1976 in which hundreds were killed; that rebellion began a series of violent protests and strikes that helped end apartheid.
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938) and stopped Turkey from being carved up
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)
Became the leader of Egypt and a world power, involved in the Suez War and nationalized the Suez Canal
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
International Monetary Fund
An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
An approach to the world economy, developed in the 1970s, that favored reduced tariffs, the free movement of capital, a mobile and temporary workforce, the privatization of industry, and the curtailing of government efforts to regulate the economy.
The quickening of global economic transactions after World War II, which resulted in total world output returning to the levels established before the Great Depression and moving beyond them.
The movement of more isolationist and nationalist ideals
was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat, military theorist, and major figure of the Cuban Revolution. Since his death, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous counter-cultural symbol.
a movement in which French-speaking Africans and West Indians celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture and values
Fundamentalist Hindu movement that became politically important in India in the 1980s by advocating a distinct Hindu identity and decrying government efforts to accommodate other faith groups.
A Jewish state on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, both in antiquity and again founded in 1948 after centuries of Jewish diaspora.
refers to a renewing of the Islamic religion throughout the Islamic world, that began roughly sometime in 1970s; sought greater religious piety and a growing adoption of Islamic culture
a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon
Osama bin Laden/al-Qaeda
Saudi Militant who heads the terrorist group, al Qaeda, is responsible for 9/11 and other terrorist attacks. Osama is a strong Muslim which was his main purpose towards his attacks.
Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; helped to support rising Asian populations.
1962 book by Rachel Carson that started the environmental movement and launched the environmentalist movement
an international organization that works for environmental conservation and the preservation of endangered species
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