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133 terms

Lesson 5 Word List

Chapter 9
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active acquired immunity
a form of long-term, acquired immunity that protects the body against a new infection as the result of antibodies that develop naturally after an initial infection or artificially after a vaccination
acute lymphocytic leukemia
predominated by immature lymphocytes and develops most frequently in children and adolescents
acute myelogenous leukemia
predominated by immature granulocytes
agglutination
the clumping together of cells as a result of interaction with specific antibodies called agglutinins
AIDS
a deadly virus; destroys the body's immune system by invading the helper T lymphocytes, which play an important part in the body's immune response
allergen
a substance that can produce a hyper sensitive reaction in the body
allergy
a hyper sensitive reaction to normally harmless antigens, most of which are environmental
anaphylaxis
an exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered antigen
anemia
a deficiency of oxygen being delivered to the cells because of a decrease in the quantity of hemoglobin or red blood cells
anisocytosis
an abnormal condition of the blood characterized by red blood cells of variable and abnormal size
aplastic anemia
anemia characterized by an inadequacy of all the formed blood elements
artificial acquired immunity
an individual receives a vaccine, antigen or toxoid to stimulate the formation of antibodies within his or her body.
ascites
an abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes
autologous blood transfusion
when a person receives blood or a blood component that has been previously collected from that person through reinfusion
bleeding time
measurement of the time required for bleeding to stop
blood transfusion
an administration of blood or a blood component to an individual to replace blood lost through surgery, trauma, or disease
bone marrow biopsy
the microscopic exam of bone marrow tissue, which fully evaluates hematopoiesis by revealing the number, shape, and size of the RBCs and WBCs and platelet precursors
bone marrow transplant
after receiving an intravenous infusion of aggressive chemotherapy or total body irradiation to destroy all malignant cells and to inactivate the immune system, a donor's bone marrow cells are infused intravenously into the recipient
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
predominated by exceptional amounts of lymphocytes found in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes that are abnormal, small, and mature
chronic myelogenous leukemia
has immature and mature granulocytes existing in the bloodstream and bone marrow
coagulation
the process of transforming a liquid into a solid, especially of the blood
complete blood cell count
a series of tests performed on peripheral blood, which inexpensively screens for problems in the hematologic sys
Coomb's test
blood test used to discover the presence of antierythorcyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh negative woman
CT scan
a collection of x-ray images taken from various angles following injection of a contrast medium
cytomegalovirus
a large species-specific, herpes-type virus with a wide variety of disease effects
dyscrasia
an abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, or prenatal Rh incompatibility
edema
a local or generalized condition in which the body tissues contain an excessive amount to tissue fluid; swelling; generalized it is sometimes called dropsy
ELISA
a blood test used for screening for an antibody to the AIDS virus
erythremia
an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells; polycythemia vera
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
a test performed on the blood, which measures the rate at which red blood cells settle out of a tube of unclotted blood. It is determined by measuring the settling distance of RBCs in normal saline over 1 hour
erythropoiesis
the process of red blood cell production
granulocytosis
an abnormal elevated number of granulocytes in the circulating blood as a reaction to any variety of inflammation or infection
hematocrit
an assessment of RBC percentage in the total blood volume
hematologist
a medical specialist in the field of hematology
hematology
the scientific study of blood and blood-forming tissues
hemochromatosis
a rare ion metabolism disease characterized by iron deposits throughout the body, usually as a complication of one of the hemolytic anemias
hemoglobin
a complex protein-iron compound in the blood that carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from the cells to the lungs
hemolysis
the breakdown of RBCs and the release of hemoglobin that occurs normally at the end of the life span of a red cell
hemophilia
a term used to define different hereditary inadequacies of coagulation factors resulting in prolonged bleeding times
Hemophilia A (classic hemophilia)
most common type of hemophilia which is the result of a deficiency or absence of antihemophilic factor VIII
Hemophilia B (Christmas disease)
the deficiency of a coagulation factor called factor IX
hemorrhage
a loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time, either externally or internally; may be arterial, venous, or capillary
hemostasis
the termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the complex coagulation process of the body, consisting of vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and thrombin and fibrin synthesis
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
hyperalbuminemia
an increased level of albumin in the blood
hyperbilirubinemia
greater than normal amounts of the bile pigment bilirubin, in the blood
hyperlipidemia
an excessive level of fats in the blood
hypersensitivity
an abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction and resulting tissue damage to a particular stimulus
hypersplenism
a syndrome involving a deficiency of one or more types of blood cells and an enlarged spleen
immune reaction (response)
a defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies
immunity
the state of being resistant to or protected from a disease
immunization
the process of creating immunity to a specific disease
immunologist
the health specialist whose training and experience is concentrated in immunology
immunology
the study of the reaction of tissues of the immune system of the body to antigenic stimulation
immunotherapy
a special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity agents that are capable of changing the relationship between a tumor and the host
iron deficiency anemia
characterized by deficient of hemoglobin level due to a lack of iron in the body. There is a greater demand on the stored iron than can be supplied by the body
Kaposi's Sarcoma
a malignant growth that begins as soft, brownish or purple raise areas on the feet and slowly spreads on the skin, spreading to the lymph nodes and internal organs
leukemia
excessive uncontrolled increase of immature WBCs in the blood eventually leading to infection, anemia, and thrombocytopenia (decreased number of platelets)
leukocytopenia
an abnormal decrease in number of white blood cells to fewer than ? Cells per cubic millimeter.
lipid profile
measurement of the lipids in the blood
local reaction
a reaction to treatment that occurs at the site where it was administered
lymphadenopathy
any disorder of the lymph nodes or vessels
lymphangiogram
an x-ray assessment of the lymphatic system following injection of a contrast medium into the lymph vessels in the hand or foot
lymphoma
a lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant - beginning with a painless enlarged lymph node(s) and progressing to anemia, weakness, fever and weight loss
mononucleosis
usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); typically a benign, self-limiting acute infection of the B lymphocytes
multiple myeloma
a malignant plasma cell neoplasm causing an increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells, which often entirely replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure
myasthenia gravis
a chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder and autoimmune disease in which antibodies block or destroy some acetylcholine receptor sites causing severe skeletal muscle weakness (without atrophy) and fatigue, which occurs at different levels of severity
myeloid
of or pertaining to the marrow or spinal chord
natural acquired immunity
immunity to a disease agent gained by an individual after that individual has had the disease
pancytopenia
a marked reduction in the number of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
partial thromboplastin test
a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and system of clot formation within the body
passive acquired immunity
a form of acquired immunity resulting from antibodies that are transmitted naturally through the placenta to a fetus, through the colostrum to an infant, artificially by injection of antiserum or treatment or as a prophylaxis
pathogens
disease producing microorganisms
pernicious anemia
anemia resulting from a deficiency of mature RBCs and the formation and circulation of megaloblasts (large nucleated, immature, poorly functioning RBCs) with marked poikilocytosis and anisocytosis.
platelet count
the count of platelets per cubic millimeter of blood
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
pneumonia caused by a common worldwide parasite, Pneumocystis carinii, for which most people have immunity if they are not severely immunocompromised
poikilocytosis
RBC shape variation
polycythemia veran
an abnormal increase in the number of RBCs, granulocytes, and thrombocytes leading to an increase in blood volume and viscosity (thickness)
prothrombin time
a blood test used to evaluate the common pathway and extrinsic system of clot formation
purpura
a group of bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes; small, pinpoint hemorrhages are known as petechia and larger hemorrhagic areas are known as ecchymoses or bruises
red blood cell count
the measurement of the circulating number of RBCs in one cubic millimeter of peripheral blood
resistance
the body's ability to counteract the effects of pathogens and other harmful agents
reticulocyte count
measurement of the number of circulating reticulocytes, immature erythrocytes, in a blood specimen
sarcoidosis
a systemic inflammatory disease resulting in the formation of multiple small, rounded lesions (granulomas) in the lungs (comprising %), lymph nodes, eyes, liver, and other organs
Schilling test
a diagnostic analysis for pernicious anemia
septicemia
systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spread from an infection in any part of the body
serology
the branch of laboratory medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reactions
sickle cell anemia
a chronic hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the RBCs become shaped like a crescent in the presence of low oxygen concentrations
SLE
Systemic lupus erythematosus
splenomegaly
an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
susceptible
a state of having a lack of resistance to pathogens and other harmful agents
systemic reaction
a reaction that is evidenced by generalized body symptoms such as runny nose, itchy eyes, hives, and rashes
thalassemia
a hereditary form of hemolytic anemia in which the alpha or beta hemoglobin chains are defective and the production of hemoglobin is deficient, creating hypochronic microcytic RBCs
thrombocytopenia
an abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced
thrombus
a clot
Western blot
detects the presence of the antibodies to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, used to confirm the validity of ELISA tests
white blood cell count
the measurement of the circulating number of WBCs in one cubic millimeter of peripheral blood
white blood cell differential
a measurement of the percentage of each specific type of circulating WBCs present in one cubic millimeter of peripheral blood drawn for the WBC count
agglutin/o
to clump
aniso-
unequal
bas/o
base
blast/o
embryonic stage of development
-blast
embryonic stage of development
chrom/o
color
coagul/o
clotting
cyt/o
cell
-emia
blood condition
eosin/o
red, rosy
erythr/o
red
-globin
containing protein
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
is/o
equal
kary/o
nucleus
leuk/o
white
-lytic
destruction
mono-
one
morph/o
shape
myel/o
bone marrow or spinal cord
nucle/o
nucleus
-oid
resembling
-osis
condition
-penia
decrease in; deficiency
-phage
to eat
phag/o
to eat
-philia
attraction to
-phoresis
transmission
-poiesis
formation
poikil/o
varied; irregular
sider/o
iron
spher/o
round; sphere
-stasis
stopping or controlling
thromb/o
clot