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Conditioning

Vocab concerning classical and operant conditioning, reinforcement, punishment, ect.
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Learning
relatively permanent change in behavior acquired through experience
Classical Conditioning
process of learning by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit an identical or similar response to one originally eicited by another stimulus as the result of the pairing of the two stimuli
Unconditioned response
unlearned response to a stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus
Stimulus that elicits an unlearned response
Neutral simulus
stimulus that before conditioning doesn't produce a particular response
Conditioned response
acquired or learned response to a conditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Extinction
gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response
Spontaneous recovery
spontaneous return of a conditioned response following extinction
Reconditioning
process of relearning a conditioned response following extinction
Stimulus generalization
tendency for stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response
Stimulus discrimination
tendency to differentiate among stimuli so that stimuli that are related to the original conditioned stimulus, but not identical to it, fail to elicit a conditioned response
Higher-order conditioning
process by which a new stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response as a result of its being paired with a conditioned stimlus that already elicits the conditioned response
Conditioned emotional reaction
emotional response to a particular stimulus acquired through classical conditioning
Phobias
excessive fears of particular objects or situations
Behavior therapy
form of therapy that involves the systematic application of the principles of learning
Conditioned taste aversions
aversions to particular tatses acquired through classical conditioning
Immune system
body's system of defense against disease
Law of Effect
Thorndike's principle that responses that have satisfying effects are more likely to recur, while those that have unpleasant effects are less likely to recur
Radical behaviorism
philosophical position that free will is an illusion or myth and that human and animal behavior is completely determined by environmental and genetic influences
Reinforcer
stimulus event that strengthens the response it follows
Operant conditioning
process of learning in which the manipulation of the consequences of a response influences the likelihood or probability of the response occurring
Skinner box
experimental apparatus developed by B.F. Skinner for studying relationships between reinforcement and behavior
Superstitious behavior
behavior acquired through coincidental association of a response and a reinforcement
Discriminative stimulus
cue that signals that reinforcement is available if the subject makes a particular response
Positive reinforcement
strengthening of a response through the introduction of a stimulus following the response
Negative reinforcement
strengthening of a response through the removal of a stimulus after the response occurs
Primary reinforcers
reinforcers that are naturally rewarding because they satisfy basic biological needs or drives
Secondary reinforcers
learned reinforcers that develop their reinforcing properties because of their association with primary reinforcers
Shaping
process of learning that involves the reinforcement of increasingly closer approximations of the desired response
Method of successive approximations
method used to shape behavior that involves reinforcing ever-closer approximations of the desired response
Schedules of reinforcement
predetermined plans for timing the delivery of reinforcement
Schedule of continuous reinforcement
system of dispensing a reinforcement each time a response is produced
Schedule of partial reinforcement
system of dispensing a reinforcement for only a portion of responses
Escape learning
learning of behaviors that allow an organism to escape from an aversive stimulus
Avoidance learning
learning of behaviors that allow an organism to avoid an aversive stimulus
Punishment
introduction of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a reinforcing stimulus after a response occurs, which leads to the weakening or suppression of the response
Behavior modification
systematic application of learning principles to strengthen adaptive behavior and weaken maladaptive behavior
Token economy program
form of behavior modification in which tokens earned for performing desired behaviors can be exchanged for positive reinforcers
Programmed instruction
learning method in which complex material is broken down into a series of small steps that learners master at their own pace
Conputer-assisted instruction
form of programmed instruction in which a computer is used to guide a student through a series of increasingly difficult questions
Cognitive learning
learning that occurs without the opportunity of first performing the learned response or being reinforced for it
Insight learning
process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs
Latent learning
learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and that is not displayed until reinforcement is provided
Cognitive map
mental representation of an area that helps an organism navigate its way from one point to another
Implicit learning
learning without conscious awareness of what is learned
Observational learning
learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist
B. F. Skinner
American psychologist
John Watson
English psychologist and educator
Pavlovian puppies
Bells were rung at the same time dogs were fed until dogs were conditioned to salivate at bell; Pavlov
Little Albert
Children played with white rat; bell sounded to frighten them; children feared furry objects because they were associated with the frightening bell; Watson
Skinner's rats and pigeons
Trained to perform simple acts to trigger positive reinforcement of act while in skinner box
John Garcia
fed wolves contaminated sheep carcasses until they grew to avoid sheep entirely
Altophobia
Fear of heights
Arachnophobia
Fear of spiders
Aviophobia
Fear of flying
Claustrophobia
Fear of confined spaces
Coulrophobia
Fear of clowns
Homophobia
Fear of sameness, monotony or of homosexuality or of becoming homosexual
Nostalgia
May be conditioned responses elicited by stimuli that were associated with pleasant experiences in the past
Drugs
drug cravings and taste aversions may be acquired through classical conditioning
Immune-system responses
Possible to manipulate immune system with classical conditioning
Puzzle box
Cats escaped Thorndike's box through trial-and-error
Red/Green lights
Green light signals driving through intersection will likely be reinforced by safe passage
Positive reinforcement example
child brushes teeth before bed --> parent praises child --> tooth-brushing increases
Negative reinforcement example
take aspirin for headache --> headache goes away --> use of aspirin in future more likely for headache pain
Punishment example
bite red pepper --> tongue burns --> avoid red peppers
Omission training example
child hits child --> bad child put in time out --> child doesn't hit anymore
Fixed-ratio schedule
reinforcement given after specific number of correct responses
Variable-ratio schedule
number of correct responses needed before reinforcement varies
Fixed-interval schedule
reinforcement given for correct response after fixed amount of time
Variable-interval schedule
amount of elapsed time before reinforcement varies
Fixed-ratio schedule example
piecework schedule
Variable-ratio schedule example
gambling
Fixed-interval schedule example
animal in Skinner box has 30 seconds to make correct response
Variable-interval schedule example
pop quizes
Primary reinforcer example
food, water, sex
Secondary reinforcer example
money
Escape learning example
motorist learns detours to escape traffic jams
Avoidance learning example
person leaves work early to avoid heavy traffic
Extinction example
Girl stops calling out in class when teacher fails to acknowledge her
Operant conditioning principles
used in biofeedback training, behavior modification, and programmed instruction
Insight learning example
person arrives at solution to problem after thinking from different angle
Latent learning example
person learns song lyrics, but doesn't sing until friends begin to sing
Observational learning example
child imitates older sibling
Giving praise
avoid empty flattery, use hugs, make eye contact
Spontaneous recovery example
fear of dentistry returns after months without a visit
Stimulus generalization example
person experiences fear when visiting office of new dentist
Stimulus discrimination example
person responds fearfully to dentist's drill, but not to dentist's mirror or brush
higher-order conditioning example
person cringes when they hear dentist's name