Praxis 5001 Science
Terms in this set (98)
"Powerhouse of cell" that transforms food energy into ATP.
-Control center or "brain of the cell" -Contains the DNA (genetic material stored in chromosomes) **Found in both plant & animal cells
-Powerhouse of the cell -Releases chemical energy from food
-Cells that use more energy (like muscle cells) have more mitochondria **Found in both plant & animal cells
-Produces food for the plant cell by photosynthesis-Contains chlorophyll **Found in plant cells only
-stores food, water, minerals, waste. found in plant and animal cells.
-Makes proteins in the cell -Found in cytoplasm and on rough endoplasmic reticulum, but initially made in the nucleolus **Found in both plant and animal cells
Golgi Body or Golgi Apparatus
-flat curved sacs used for storing and packaging - Packages proteins made by the ribosomes and sends them to other parts of the cell where needed **Found in both plant & animal cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough & Smooth)
-Folded membranes that act like a road in the cell, transporting substances such as proteins. Rough ER are rough due to the presence of ribosome; Smooth ER lacks ribosomes **Found in both plant & animal cells
-A sac in the cell that has digestive enzymes that can break down cell waste and old cell parts that have died **Found mostly in animal cells, rarely in plants
-The outer boundary of the cell that surrounds the cytoplasm -regulates what enters and exits the cell-protects and supports the cell **Found in both plant & animal cells
-a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane of plants and provides support to the cell & allows water to pass **plants only
-Located within the nucleus and made of DNA (genetic material)
-Contains genes that code for various traits (such as hair color, leaf shape, etc) **Found in animal cells & plant cells
-Clear, jelly fluid that is within the cell and contains all the organelles of the cell-Moves material through the cell **Found in plant and animal cells
-Located inside the Nucleus - Stores RNA (genetic material)
-Produces the Ribosomes **Found in both plant & animal cells
Things to remember: plant cell vs animal cell
Plant cells: chloroplasts, cell wall, vacuole is larger than in animal cell
Animal cells: no chloroplasts, no cell wall, vacuole is smaller than those in plant cell
the outer layer of Earth's surface which is made of cool brittle rock
A subdivision of the upper mantle situated below the lithosphere, a zone of malleable rock that moves over time
Earth's thickest layer made of hot rock - below the lithosphere/ asthenosphere but above the core. 70% of the earth's volume
has a solid inner/ liquid outter
made of iron, nickle alloy with small amounts of oxygen, silicon, and sulfur
A mixture of gases that surround the Earth.
(nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide)
Layers of the Earth's Atmosphere
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exposphere
* First layer above the earth's surface
* Weather occurs here
*Pressure/ Temperature decreases with altitude
* Temperature Increases with altitude
* Ozone Layer
* Jet Aircrafts fly here
* Temperature decreases with altitude
* Meteors or rock fragments burn up
* Air is very thin
* Temperature increases with altitude
* Space shuttles orbits here
* Outer most layer w/ few particles
* Merges with space
* Layer of the stratosphere
* Absorbs most of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation
* An electrified region w/ large amounts of ions and electrons
* btw thermospher and mesophere
* Aurora Borealis
* Northern Lights Display - Formed in the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere (ionosphere)
* Caused by excited oxygen & nitrogen
* Northern Hemisphere
* Southern Lights Display
* Caused by excited oxygen & nitrogen
* Southern Hemisphere
* All the water at and near the surface of the earth
* 97% of which is in oceans
Name the 5 Oceans
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, Arctic
* Large movable plates under the Earth's surface.
* Located btw Lithosphere and Asthenosphere
A supercontinent that assembled at the end of the Paleozoic Era.
Ring of Fire
A major volcanic belt formed by the many volcanoes that rim the Pacific Ocean
Formed by tectonic plates
Himalayan, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats
A solid substance on Earth that has a specific chemical composition and crystalline structure. Its atoms are structurally arranged
A naturally formed aggregate, or mixture, of minerals; have varied chemical compositions
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface thru exposure to the earths atmospher
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
High-altitude clouds that are thin, feathery tufts of ice crystals. No precipitation. (Cirrostratus) (Cirrocumulus)
Middle level (6500 - 20,000 ft), gray sheet, thinner layer allows sun to appear as through ground glass. Precipitation: rain or snow.
Low level clouds - Dense
The Solar System
Consist of the sun, moon, 8 planets and their moon, meteors, asteroids, and comets
Loose collections of rock, ice, and cosmic dust that orbits around the sun. Gives off gas and dust in the form of a tail as it passes close to the sun
(minor planets)- small rocky worlds which orbit the sun, Mars and Jupiter
* icy nucleus heats by the solar wind
A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
Basic units of life
Big Bang Theory
The theory that the universe originated in a huge explosion that released all matter and energy.
A thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell by osmosis, diffusion, active transport
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Movement of water thru permeable membranes to equalize concentration on both sides of the membrane
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
A cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
Four Types of Tissue
* Epithelial - protection, secretion and absorption
* Connective - holds everything together
* Muscle - provides movement and force
* Nervous - brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system
* skin, nails, hair, sweat glands
* protects the internal structures of the body from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamines and hormones.
* supports and protects the body while giving it shape and form
* bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, cartilage
* monitors/ coordinates internal organ function
* responds to changes in the external environment.
* brain, spinal cord, nerves
enables movement through the contraction of muscles.
provides the body with oxygen via gas exchange btw air from the outside environment and gases in the blood. (lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi)
Circulation of Blood - to transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues throughout body (heart, blood, and blood vessels)
Blood vessels that carry blood (oxygen and other nutrients) away from the heart
Blood vessels that carry blood (carbon dioxide and other wastes) back to the heart
* Connect w/ the arteries and veins
* Smallest of the blood vessels
* Oxygen, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged within the tissues.
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another (pituitary gland)
Protects the body from infections
Lymphatic System (Spleen, Tonsils, Thymus Gland)
Breaks down food polymers into smaller molecules to provide energy for the body.
removes wastes and maintains water balance in the body.
(kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters)
the production of offspring through sexual reproduction
testes, scrotum, penis, vas deferens, prostate
A substance present in all living cells that provides energy for many metabolic processes and is involved in making RNA.
a single cell or organisms that does NOT have organized nuclei
Cell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles.
Asexual reproduction - Cell Division - Less Common
Daughter cells are genetically identical to parent cell.
Sexual reproduction - Cell Division - Most Common
number of chromosomes are reduced by half
Changes in the genetic material of cells that passes from one generation to another.
The hierarchical groups of related organisms
(Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species)
3 Domains of Organism
* Archea (Prokaryotic Single Celled Organisms)
* Bacteria (Uni Celled Prokaryotic micro-organisms)
* Eukaryotes (Organisms whose cells have nucleus and sp. organelles)
The Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon
When the Moon is at its farthest distance from Earth
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
The Law of Inertia
Newtons First Law. the velocity of an object does not change unless a force is applied.
A moon that is completely dark because it's unlit side is facing Earth
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Energy of motion
Energy that is stored and held in readiness
A growth response to light
The Outer Planets
They all have rings, gaseous surfaces and are all bigger than Earth.
Electromagnetic waves with the shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies
The Law of Interaction
Newtons 3rd Law. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
The narrowest range of organisms within the biological taxonomy
the force of attraction between all masses in the universe