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adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils)

lymphatic tissue in posterior wall of pharynx near auditory tubes


portion of tooth projecting beyond gum


bonelike substance beneath tooth enamel


chisel-shaped tooth

lingual frenulum

anchors tongue to floor of mouth


tooth specialized for grinding

oral cavity

chamber between tongue and palate


projections on tongue surface

periodontal ligament

attaches tooth to jaw

sublingual gland

smallest of major salivary glands


cone-shaped projection of soft palate


space between the teeth, cheeks, and lips

the part of the pharynx superior to the soft palate is called the ______


the middle part of the pharynx is called the ______


the inferior portion of the pharynx is called the ______


______ is the main secretion of the esophagus


the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm through an opening called the ______

esophageal hiatus

summarize the functions of the esophagus

the esophagus is a muscular tube that contracts as you swallow and takes food from the mouth to the stomach

what are the four regions of the stomach?

1. cardiac
2. fundic
3. body
4. pyloric

what valve prevents regurgitation of food from the small intestine back into the stomach?

the pyloric sphincter

what gastric cells secrete digestive enzymes?

chief cells

what gastric cells secrete hydrochloric acid?

parietal cells

what is the most important digestive enzyme in gastric juice?


what substance is needed for efficient absorption of vitamin B12?

intrinsic factor

what hormone secreted by the stomach stimulates gastric glands to secrete?


what is the semifluid past of food particles and gastric juice called?


summarize the functions of the stomach

the functions of the stomach are to hold, digest, expell, and process food for digestion as it empties into the small intestine.

amylase (salivary)

carbohydrate-digesting enzyme

bile salts

causes emulsification of fats


stimulates gallbladder to release bile


activates protein-digesting enzyme trypsin

kupffer cells

carries on phagocytosis in liver


fat-digesting enzyme


nucleic acid-digesting enzyme


stimulates pancreas to secrete fluids high in bicarbonate ions


protein-digesting enzyme

what are the three portions of the small intestine?

1. duodenum
2. jejunum
3. ileum

what is the function of the mesentery?

supports blood vessels, nerves, and lympatic vessels that supply the intestinal wall

what digestive enzymes are secreted by the small intestinal mucosa?

peptidases, sucrase, maltase, lactase, and intestinal lipase

what valve controls the movement of material between the small and large intestines?

iliocecal sphincter

what is the small projection that contains lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum called?

vermiform appendix

summarize the functions of the small intestine

the small intestine absorbs most of the nutrients found in food. it recieves secretions from the pancreas and liver. it completes digestion of the nutrients in chyme, absorbs the products of digestion, and transports the remaining residues to the large intestine

summarize the functions of the large intestine

it absorbs ingested water and electrolytes remaining in the alimentary canal. it forms and stores feces too.

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