Digestive-Anatomy Final

adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils)
lymphatic tissue in posterior wall of pharynx near auditory tubes
portion of tooth projecting beyond gum
bonelike substance beneath tooth enamel
chisel-shaped tooth
lingual frenulum
anchors tongue to floor of mouth
tooth specialized for grinding
oral cavity
chamber between tongue and palate
projections on tongue surface
periodontal ligament
attaches tooth to jaw
sublingual gland
smallest of major salivary glands
cone-shaped projection of soft palate
space between the teeth, cheeks, and lips
the part of the pharynx superior to the soft palate is called the ______
the middle part of the pharynx is called the ______
the inferior portion of the pharynx is called the ______
______ is the main secretion of the esophagus
the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm through an opening called the ______
esophageal hiatus
summarize the functions of the esophagus
the esophagus is a muscular tube that contracts as you swallow and takes food from the mouth to the stomach
what are the four regions of the stomach?
1. cardiac
2. fundic
3. body
4. pyloric
what valve prevents regurgitation of food from the small intestine back into the stomach?
the pyloric sphincter
what gastric cells secrete digestive enzymes?
chief cells
what gastric cells secrete hydrochloric acid?
parietal cells
what is the most important digestive enzyme in gastric juice?
what substance is needed for efficient absorption of vitamin B12?
intrinsic factor
what hormone secreted by the stomach stimulates gastric glands to secrete?
what is the semifluid past of food particles and gastric juice called?
summarize the functions of the stomach
the functions of the stomach are to hold, digest, expell, and process food for digestion as it empties into the small intestine.
amylase (salivary)
carbohydrate-digesting enzyme
bile salts
causes emulsification of fats
stimulates gallbladder to release bile
activates protein-digesting enzyme trypsin
kupffer cells
carries on phagocytosis in liver
fat-digesting enzyme
nucleic acid-digesting enzyme
stimulates pancreas to secrete fluids high in bicarbonate ions
protein-digesting enzyme
what are the three portions of the small intestine?
1. duodenum
2. jejunum
3. ileum
what is the function of the mesentery?
supports blood vessels, nerves, and lympatic vessels that supply the intestinal wall
what digestive enzymes are secreted by the small intestinal mucosa?
peptidases, sucrase, maltase, lactase, and intestinal lipase
what valve controls the movement of material between the small and large intestines?
iliocecal sphincter
what is the small projection that contains lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum called?
vermiform appendix
summarize the functions of the small intestine
the small intestine absorbs most of the nutrients found in food. it recieves secretions from the pancreas and liver. it completes digestion of the nutrients in chyme, absorbs the products of digestion, and transports the remaining residues to the large intestine
summarize the functions of the large intestine
it absorbs ingested water and electrolytes remaining in the alimentary canal. it forms and stores feces too.