History of Philosophy

What are the two conditions that make an action involuntary? Can you give examples?
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Rectificatory justiceremedies unequal distributions of gain and loss between two people.Why is lack of self-control (akrasia) problematic from Aristotle's point of view? (wrong)In what way does the uncontrolled person suppose correctly that his/her action is wrong? It doesn't matter whether its knowledge or belief if a person knew (in some full-fledged way) that what they were doing is wrong they wouldn't act like that. Person does all of their calculation and judged the action not good or pleasantUniversal KnowledgeNot a case of akrasia. Happiness goes with wealth, pleasure, friends.1st Character Aristotle RecognizesSpirit: responsible for certain emotions, such as anger, pride, and shame2nd Character Aristotle Recognizes (doughnut)Appetite: doesnt consider long term consequences. Only thinks of the present. Aim is satisfactionWhat are the main characteristics of scientific knowledge? What kind of reasoning belongs to it?Episteme (knowledge to know). Knowledge that involves true explanation of why what one knows is true. Theoretical knowledge is Concerned with explanation by observing the cause of thingsWhat are the main characteristics of craft?Production (coming to be) of artifacts. Example Buildings, House (what is it). How does it come to beHow does practical wisdom differ from either craft or scientific knowledge? What is the characteristic activity of the practically wise person? What is 'good deliberation'?The mark/characteristic acting of a practically wise person insofar as she is practically wise. Actual good is deliberating well about living well in general. Living well means not having a particular purpose. Everything doesn't fall under the same craft. Deliberately well equals good deliberationsAristotle makes three distinction between different ways of knowing but not using knowledge? Can you explain them? Does any of them help to solve Aristotle's puzzle about akrasia? (SK, U, P)1. You know scientific knowledge, but don't use that knowledge at the time you act and so you end up acting against it. You forget/don't recall/are distracted and end up acting against it 2. Universal knowledge/premise: For someone of a certain sort = some things aren't known i. Drivers shouldn't drink ii. I'm a driver iii. This is a drink 1. Not a case of akrasia 3. Perceptible knowledge/premise a. following your sensesLiberalityLiberality is the right disposition with regard to spending money, while prodigality and illiberality represent excess and deficiency respectively. The liberal person will give the right amounts of money to the right people at the right times and so will take pleasure in giving: giving money only grudgingly is a sign of illiberality. Feeling no strong attachment to money, the liberal person manages resources well and does not squander money as the prodigal person would.Magnificencemagnificence is the virtue of properly spending large sums of money on liturgies, or public gifts. Magnificence requires good taste: gaudy displays of wealth exhibit the vice of vulgarity, while spoiling a liturgy through penny-pinching is a sign of pettiness.Virtue of GoodnessDeficiency of anger. Doesn't mean a person shouldn't get angry, but if they are angry and vengeful this is not a good combo.Virtue of FriendshipPerson can be friendly doesn't mean they form bonds with a person forever.Injustice presents itself in two ways:1) a particular type, that deals with the unequal distribution of goods; 2) a more general type, that involves lawbreaking and all other vices in general.reciprocityi.e. we scratch your back, you scratch ours). Equality has to be in place before reciprocal can take place