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Terms in this set (55)
the scientific study of how we think about,
influence, and relate to one another
the theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Situational Attribution and Dispositional Attribution
What are the two types of Attribution?
Tolerant Reaction, Unfavorable Reaction
Situational Attribution leads to a ___________ and a Dipositional Attribution to a _________
Fundamental Attribution Error
When observing others, we tend to voverestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate situational factors.
The more familiar you are with an individual, the less likely you are to commit this error when evaluating their behavior
False Consensus Effect
We tend to overestimate the extent in which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
If you win it is because you are awesome...if you lose, it must have been the referees or weather or....
a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, events
Advertising is based off _____________ ___________
Stanford Prison Experiment
Illustrated the importance of role playing & deindividuation in attitude formation.Students were made to play the roles of prisoner and prison guards in the basement of psychology building
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
People want to have consistent attitudes and behaviors... when they are not, they experience unpleasant tension.Usually they try to change their attitude
Festinger & Carlsmith's Cognitive
Study participants completed a boring task and
were then were paid to lie and tell the next
subject that it was an enjoyable task.
Some subjects were paid $20, while others
were paid $1.
Those who were paid less were found to have
significantly more positive attitudes toward
Norms of Reciprocity
What are 3 Compliance Strategies?
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
tendency for people who won't agree to a large task, but then agree when a smaller request is made
Norms of Reciprocity
People tend to think that when someone does something nice for them, they ought to do something nice in return.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Ordinary people will do "shocking" things
when told to do so (obedience).
What did we learn from Milgram?
Proximity of Authority Figure
Respect for Authority Figure
Depersonalization of "Student"
Role Models of Disobedience
Later studies about conformity revealed that obedience varied with...
Would not have received approval from
IRB (Internal Review Board) today
Ethical issues of Milgrams study...
About 1/3 of the time,
70% of participants
conformed at least once.
The group is unanimous
The group is at least three
One admires the group's status
One had made no prior
To strengthen conformity:
Normative Social Influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disappointment
Informational Social Influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Social Facilitation Theory
If you are really good at something....or it is an easy task...you will perform BETTER in front of a group.
If it is a difficult task or you are not very good at it...you will perform WORSE in front of a group
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts toward a common goal than if they were individually
People get swept up
in a group and lose
sense of self.
Feel anonymous and
Explains rioting behaviors.
Groups tend to make more extreme decisions than the individual; strengthen common beliefs
Group members suppress their reservations about the ideas supported by the group.
They are more concerned with group harmony.
Works in highly cohesive groups.
Overgeneralized idea about a group of people.
Undeserved (usually negative) attitude towards a group of people.
Ethnocentrism is a typical result of prejudice.
An action based on a prejudice.
How does prejudice occur?
Social Roots and Cognitive Roots
Just World Phenomenon
Contact between hostile groups will reduce
animosity if they are made to work towards a
Sherif Camp Study
study that showed how hostility could be created, but how can be solved by interdependence and subordinate goals.
A prediction that causes itself to be true.
Biology of Aggression
Genetic (Twins, Y Chromosome)
Neural (Amygdala, Frontal Lobes)
Biochemical Factors (Hormones,
Psychology of Aggression
Bandura's Modeling (Social
Other Aversive Stimuli (Heat,
Foul Odors, Pollutants)
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or
a situation in which the conflicting
parties, by each rationally pursuing their
self-interest, become caught in mutually
You are more likely
to like someone who
Except in elementary
Paula Abdul was
wrong- opposites do
Birds of the same
feather do flock
Liking through Association
can play a part in
If I were incredibly
fond of a certain
restaurant and I saw
the same waitress every
time I ate there, I
might begin to associate
that waitress with the
good feelings I get by
going to that restaurant.
The combination of characteristics that are evaluated as beautiful or handsome at the positive extreme and as unattractive at the negative extreme.
The Hotty Factor
They are perceived as
more honest and
successful than less
Youth and Symmetry seem to be two culturally
universal marks of attractiveness.
What is beauty?
conditions under which people
are more or less likely to help
one another. In general, the
more people around, the less
chance of help.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Presence of Examples
Not in a Hurry
Victim Appears to
Victim is Similar to
Small Town / Rural
Feelings of Guilt
Focused on Others /
What makes it likely that someone will help,
counteracting the "bystander effect"?
Social Exchange Theory
The idea that our social behavior is an exchange
process, which we maximize benefits and
minimize costs (weigh the pro's/cons of giving
to give as much as we receive
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
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