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Community Test 2
Ch 6, 9, 12, 14, 15
Terms in this set (79)
Developed both the germ theory and pasteurization
Developed antiseptic surgery
Developed pure culture and identified the organisms that cause TB, anthrax, and cholera disease.
"father of epidemiology" water pump cholera outbreak map
Environmental conditions during Crimean War
How did things switch in the 20th century in regards to epidemiology?
Shifted from looking at single agents (ie Cholera) to determining multi-factorial etiology(the many factors that contribute to disease) .
What came of looking at multi-factorial etiology?
That some disease could be prevented and other disease could at least be delayed.
The development of what helped epidemiologist classify persons in terms of exposures or inherent susceptibility to disease?
Genetic and molecular techniques
Who are the center for public health planning and the design of response plans against bioterrorism?
How do nurses play a key role in the community's interdisciplinary team?
Look at health, disease causation, and how to prevent & treat illness.
Nurses are involved in ___________ ? In settings such as homes, schools, workplaces, clinics and health care organizations.
Surveillance and monitoring of disease trends
When using the nursing process what provides baseline information?
Epidemiological studies rely on what?
Rates and proportions
type of ratio in which the denominator includes the numerator.
measure of the frequency of a health event in different populations at certain periods.
the probability that an event will occur within a specified period.
quantifies the rate of development of new cases in a population at risk.
indicates the proportion of the population at risk that experiences the event over some period of time.
the rate of disease, injury, or other condition exceeds the usual level of that condition.
a measure of existing disease in a population at a particular time. (ie. # of existing cases(divided by) current population)
How is the duration of a disease affected?
Case fatality and cure
Why is prevalence useful when planning health care services?
bc it is an indication of the level of disease existing in the population and therefore of the size of the population in need of the services.
proportion of persons who are exposed to an agent and develop the disease. usually specific to an exposure
Crude annual mortality rate
an estimate of the risk for death for a person in a given population for that year.
Case fatality rate
proportion of persons diagnosed with a particular disorder who die within a specific period.
Proportionate mortality rate
proportion of all deaths resulting from a specific cause.
a factor or form of energy whose presence or relative absence is essential for the occurrence of a disaster or other adverse health outcomes
A living species capable of being infected or affected by an agent.
All that is internal or external to a given host or agent and that is influenced and influences the host and or agent. (ie climate, working conditions)
Web of Causality
Recognizes the complex interrelationships of many factors interacting, sometimes in subtle ways, to increase (or decrease) the risk of disease.
Associations are sometimes mutual, with lines of causality going in both directions.
treats the multiple determinants of health as interrelated and acting synergistically rather than discrete.
What is the primary goal of screening younger ppl
to promote lifestyle change which may provide long-term benefits later in life.
How is validity in a screening test measured?
by sensitivity and specificity
quantifies how accurately the test identifies those with the condition or trait.
indicates how accurately the test identifies those without the condition or trait.
Which test would you use when re-screening is impractical and when it is important to reduce false positive results?
Which test would you use when early treatment is important and when identification of every case is important?
Positive Predictive Value
the proportion of persons with a positive test who actually have the disease
Negative Predictive Value
the proportion of persons with a negative test who are actually disease-free
Primary source of birth and mortality statistics
long-term patterns of morbidity or mortality rates
a time and space related pattern that is important in infectious disease investigations and as an indicator for toxic exposures.
deals with the distribution of outcomes. who? what? when? where?
discovers the determinants of the outcome. The how and why?
Epidemiological study design in which subjects without an outcome of interest are classified according to past or present (or future) exposures or characteristics and followed over time to observe and compare the rates of some health outcome in the various exposure groups.
a living intermediary that carries an agent from a reservoir to a susceptible host
The habitat in which an infectious agent normally lives, grows, and multiplies.
The ability of an infectious agent to cause severe disease, measured as the proportion of persons with the disease who become severely ill or die.
The ability of an agent to cause disease after infection, measured as the proportion of persons infected by an agent who then experience clinical disease.
Ability to cause an immunologic response
Example of airborne transmission
Anthrax, influenza, pneumonia
Measles, chickenpox, TB, pertussis
Examples of fecalborne transmission
Salmonella, Hep A, Trichinosis, E coli
Examples of animal or insect bite transmission
malaria, rabies, lyme disease, Rocky mountain spotted fever
What is the purpose of surveillance?
Tells us where problems are, who is affected, and where the programmatic and prevention activities should be directed.
What can public health surveillance do?
*Serve as an early warning system for impending health emergencies
*Document the impact of an intervention
*Track progress toward specified goals.
*Monitor and clarify the epidemiology of health problems, to allow priorities to be set to inform PH policy and strategies.
The constant presence of a disease of infectious agent within a given geographic area or population.
How would u best describe passive surveillance?
Health departments receiving information regarding legally reportable diseases.
What activities are involved in public health surveillance?
*Detecting outbreaks and threats
*Finding cases for, directing and evaluating interventions
What factors must be considered to determine if an outbreak exists?
* Increased # of cases for a given time, place, population.
*More severe disease presentation
*Usual exposure routes to pathogens
*Outbreak with zoonotic and human component
What is line listing?
a chronological listing of events surrounding an outbreak, identifying:
*each person affected
*where they were prior to the onset of S/S
After a surveillance team determines the source to contamination what should be done next?
Implementing control and prevention measures.
List an example of control and prevention measures.
Removing and/or recalling product
Closing manufacture or restaurant
Cleaning up contamination
Providing prophylaxis to exposed population
Communicating to the public
What is Public Health surveillance
continuous, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health related data needed for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.
Everyone exposed to environmental hazards is at risk for developing adverse health effects and diseases, but is MOST at risk?
Infants and small children
What is body burden?
the total accumulation of chemicals within your body resulting form exposure to environmental chemicals over time.
What are the goals of taking an exposure history?
*Identify past & present toxic exposures
*Ending the pts exposure to toxins
*Proper treatment of the pts illness
What is the OSHA standard for exposure to benzene in the work place?
less than or equal to 1ppm in 8 hrs
Lead levels in children should be below?
Blood lead levels above what, require a home environment assessment?
Why are young children more susceptible to lead poison?
*put things in their mouth
*Crawl and play on floors
*Absorb the lead more easily
Effects of lead poisoning on children
A deficiency of what 2 minerals can INCREASE the absorption of lead?
Calcium and Iron
Studies show that this nutrient is helpful in reducing blood lead levels by decreasing absorption the GI tract.
What key agencies participate in the event of a disaster in the U.S.?
What are the colors and meaning of a triage tag?
Red- most urgent-1st priority
Yellow- Urgent 2nd priority
Green- Third Priority
Black- Dying or dead
When encountering a person suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder what should the nurse consider first?
* assess for safety and level of risk for harm to oneself or to others.
*The priority is to link the person to mental support services immediately; ideally bring worker to pt or walk pt to worker
Fair distribution of the benefits and burden in society is based on the needs and contributions of its members
Example of waterborne infections
Cholera, Typhoid fever, Bacillary dysentery, Giardia lambia
What is herd immunity?
protection due to the immunity of most community members making exposure unlikely
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