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Ethical value of an action is dependent on the outcome or consequence.
- Greatest good is pleasure.
- Only evil thing is pain.
- Maximize the greatest pleasure for the greatest number.
- Reasonable expectation of the greatest good.
Christian tradition invented ontology.
- What is ethical has nothing to do with your nature, but has to do with the nature of your act.
- The intention of the actor is what makes the act moral.
- Purity of the act that counts.
- Morality is either based on the consequences of the act or the intentions of the act.
➢ Character of individual
➢ Character has a lasting influence
- Not virtuous when not acting, refraining from action.
every virtue has two vices
- 10 Moral Virtues:
1) Courage: coward & fool
2) Moderation: pleasure & ascetic
3) Generosity: extravagance & stingy
4) Magnificence: vulgarity & niggardliness
5) High-Mindedness (great soul): pettiness & vanity
6) Gentle: apathetic & short temper
7) Friendly: obsequious & grouchy
8) Truthful: boastful & self-depreciation
9) Wittiness: buffoon & boorishness
- Two parts of the soul
1. Rational → practical & theoretical
2. Irrational → passions & vegetative
• Both the Rational and Irrational deal with fear, pleasure, and pain.
• Concerned with great and lofty matters. A man is regarded as high-minded when he thinks he deserves great things and actually deserves them.
• High-Minded = greatness
• High-Mindedness is the crown of the virtues → magnifies them and cannot exist without them.
• High-minded man is primarily concerned with honor and dishonor
• High-minded person not a fan of risks
Aristotle says three basis for friendship:
o Virtue > Utility > Pleasure
- Friendships can only be among equals
Partial Justice 3 forms:
1) Distributive - distributing the public goods (honor & public office) equal things to equal individuals.
2) Rectification - punitive justice → get made whole again (treated equally)
3) Reciprocity - distribution of economic goods (price fixing)
- In a Just Society:
➢ Unequally distribute public goods
➢ Set up prices for material goods
➢ Everyone is equal
- Intellectual Virtues:
- Intellectual virtues are higher than moral virtues
- Intellectual virtues lead to happiness
- Best life is philosophy
1) Techne → Arts (human beings create art) object of action is outside the action.
2) Phrohesis → Practical Wisdom (intellectual capacity)
3) Episteme → Science - capacity for deduction
4) Nous → Intelligence - grasps first principles
5) Sophia → Theoretical Wisdom
- Has to be wealth for virtues: 3 ways to generate wealth
• 3 ways to generate wealth
- Praxis → ends in themselves which will lead to happiness. - Life is praxis not production.
- Moral Shift
responsibilities to others rather than yourself
- Four Cardinal Virtues:
1) Wisdom → knowledge of truth
➢ Knowledge of truth
➢ Human knowledge (immoral not to pursue knowledge)
➢ Things that will be unknown
2. Avoid obscure and useless
➢ Virtue that has to do with social bonds
➢ Justice is crowning glory of the virtues (great-souled man is crown of virtues Aristotle)
➢ Charity - private property is not natural
➢ Private property:
o No such thing as private ownership by Nature (opposite to Locke)
o All private property is accidental
o Be charitable to those who have less by accident
- Just War Theory:
• Only engage in war for the sake at remaining at peace
• Intervene to help your allies remain at peace
➢ Fortitude - useful in times of peace
➢ High-minded - indifferent to the things you cannot change (accidents, death)
1) Calmness of Soul
➢ Calm ≠ envy, resentment
➢ Should be humble, humility
➢ Necessary for a Republic
- Fortitude (courage) works in times of peace.
- Life is nothing but chance
- Self-Control (temperance, moderation, considerateness):
➢ Free from vice of wealth
➢ Most show reverence to all men
➢ Thrift - wealth not important
➢ Even if you have wealth, prove you can live without it
- Cicero-3 Ways to Create Wealth:
• Not vulgar activities
-Cicero Principle issue is Friendship: 3 causes to friendship
1) Affection → kind services
Castiglione on women and family
- Ruling force are the women
- Women decide what to talk about and the men listen
- Finest gifts of Nature are often found in persons of very humble family
- Nobility of birth is acquired neither through talent nor through force or skill, and is a matter for congratulating one's ancestors rather than one's self
Castiglione says the world is ruled by
chance. Life is unpredictable.
Castiglione says humans are defected because
- Humans are defected because Nature is changeable → Original Sin (doesn't believe in original sin)
- Solution is "Light of Reason"
-Castiglione Qualities of good courtier:
• Noble birth, high born
• Must have grace (form is as important as substance)
- Principle profession is warrior
- Important to be fierce and harsh with enemy, but humane with fellow citizens.
- Never praise yourself publicly
- Have to have courage in prudence
- Hunting and sportsmanship very important
- Courtiers should play tennis
- Music is very important, read and play instrument
- Need literature to remember immortal moral deeds, paint sculpture
- Never think you know what you don't know
- Avoid flatterers and don't be one
- Old is good may not be good premise
- Good is always possible at any present moment
- Attack all people
- There are two kinds of virtue:
- We learn Intellectual Virtues by instruction, and we learn Moral Virtues by habit and constant practice.
- We are all born with the potential to be morally virtuous, but it is only by behaving in the right way that we train ourselves to be virtuous
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