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35 terms

Study Guide for Genetics Benchmark

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a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
asexual reproduction
a reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
sexual reproduction
mitosis
process involved in asexual reproduction
meiosis
process involved in sexual reproduction
one
Number of parents in asexual reproduction
identical to the parent
What do the offspring looks like in asexual reproduction?
two
Number of parents in sexual reproduction
genetic diversity
the benefit of Sexual Reproduction
sex cells or gametes
types of cells formed during meiosis
four
number of cells formed through meiosis
two
number of divisions in meiosis
half the number of the parent cell
number of chromosomes of sex cells in comparison to the parent cell
egg and sperm
name of two sex cells (gametes)
46
number of chromosomes in human body cells
23
number of chromosomes in human sex cells
TT
allele combination of Homozygous Dominant
Tt
allele combination of Heterozygous Hybrid
tt
allele combination of Homozygous Recessive
having two different alleles for a trait
Heterozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
Homozygous
the factors that control a trait
Gene
the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring
Heredity
Gregor Mendel
Father of Genetics
attached ears vs hanging
straight hairline vs widow's peak
2 traits that we have learned aout that are contolled by a single gene
height and skin color
2 traits that we have learned aout that are contolled by a multiple gene
physical appearance or visible traits.
Phenotype
genetic makeup, or allele combinations
Genotype
a change in a gene or chromosome
Mutation
DNA has two strands; RNA has only one. RNA contains a different sugar molecule from the sugar found in DNA. Like DNA, RNA contains adenine, guanine, and cytosine. However, instead of thymine, RNA contains uracil
Differences between DNA and RNA
copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus, and carries the message to the ribosome in the cytoplasm
responsability of Messanger RNA
carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds them to the growing protein
responsability of Transfer RNA
A carrier can pass the recessive allele on to his her offspring while the one having it will definite pass it to his or her offspring
difference between being a carrier of and having a genetic disease
XY
combination of chromosomes of a male?
a gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosome
sex-linked gene?
XX
combination of chromosomes of a female?