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Terms in this set (29)
What is their common ancestor?
a colonial flagellated protist
What are the 5 key innovations in animal evolution?
3) Body Plans
4) Development of the Body Plan
What are the 3 types of tissues in animals?
1) endoderm - inner layer, forms gut
2) ectoderm - outer layer, forms systems
3) mesoderm - between other layers
Diplo vs Triploblastic
Diploblastic - 2 layers of tissues
Triploblastic - 3 layers of tissues
What are the 2 types of symmetry?
1) Radial - arranged around central axis
2) Bilateral - mirror image along midline
What is cephalization?
the development of the head from bilateral body plan
What are the 3 body plans of bilateral animals?
1) Acoelomate - no body cavity
2) Pseudocoelomate - fluid filled space between gut and muscles
3) Coelomate - fluid filled body cavity lined with peritoneum
Cleavage: Protostomes vs Deuterostomes
Protostomes - spiral cleavage (cells in space between) and determinate cleavage ( path determined as cells produced
Deuterostomes - radial cleavage (cells directly above) and Indeterminate cleavage (path determined later)
Mouth and Anus: Protostomes vs Deuterostomes
Protostomes - blastopore formed mouth, second opening was anus
Deuterostome - blastopore formed anus, second opening was mouth
What is a blastopore?
opening on the surface of the embryo
What is an archenteron?
Mesoderm and Coelom formation: Protostomes vs Deuterostomes
Protostomes - mesoderm from near blastopore, coelom from split in mesoderm (schizocoelom)
Deuterostomes - mesoderm from archenteron, coelom from space pinched by archenteron (entercoeloms)
What are the 8 Lophotrochozoan Protostomes?
What do Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda, and Phoranida have in common?
- lophophores - tentacles for feeding
Characteristics of Platyhelminthes
What are the 4 types of Platyhelminthes?
- muscular pharynx
Characteristics of Rotifera
- freshwater pseudocoelomates
- wheel like corona for feeding
Characteristics of Nemertea
- marine ribbon worms
- have a proboscis
Characteristics of Mollusca
- have visceral mass, head-foot (with radula for feding), and mantle
- zygote develops into trochophores
What are the 4 types of Mollusca?
- snails, slugs
- torsion on shells
- operculum disk to close opening
- clams, oysters, muscles
- hinged shells
- no radula
- octopus, squids
- modified shells
- closed circulatory system
- segmented worms
- septa separate body, setae give traction
what are the 3 types of Annelida?
- bristle worms
- no setae
What are the 3 types of Ecdysozoan Protostomes?
Characteristics of Nematoda
- complex cuticle of collagen
- grow by increasing cell size
Characteristics of Onychophora
- velvet worms
- flexible buticle, segmented body, unjointed legs
Characteristics of Arthropoda
- "joint feet"
- encased in exoskeleton
- CNS, compound eyes
What is Ecdysis?
old exoskeleton of insect is shed, allows for size increase
What are 5 subphylums of Arthropoda?
1) Trilobita (extinct)
- 3 lobes
- spiders, ticks, scorpions
- 8 legs, cephalothorax and adomen
- shrimp, lobster, crabs
- covered by carapace
- have mandibles
- centipedes (1 pair legs/segment, carnivore)
- millipedes (2 pair legs/segment, herbivore)
- head, thorax, abdomen
- complete metamorphesis
Complete vs Incomplete Metamorphesis
Complete - larva are different from adults
Incomplete - the young resemble the adults